The Moscow Kremlin and the Red Square
Museums, exhibitions, galleries
Address: 109012, Russia, Moscow, Moscow, Red Square
Phone: (495) 697-0349
The Moscow Kremlin history is intertwined with major events of the Russian state life. In the XII century Moscow was a small settlement, an outpost, defending the way to the ancient Vladimir. The first wooden fortress-Kremlin (from Greek "Kremnos" — "a steep river bank", "rock") was built in 1156 at the behest of the Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy. Choice of location was dictated by strategic considerations: the Kremlin located on a high hill at inflow of the Neglinnaya river to the Moscow River was supposed to protect the mouths of two navigable rivers — Yauza and Vskhodni. Last but not least role was played by the beauty of the place. The Kremlin hill was covered with thick forest, with a picturesque meadows cut by rivers loops spread in front of it. The oldest part of Kremlin occupied a small area of about 3-4 hectare. Except for wooden walls, it was protected by ditches and earth walls. The beginning of the XIX century was marked for the Kremlin with the dramatic events. In 1812 when the Russian army left Moscow by M.I. Kutuzov’s order and Napoleon's troops entered the Kremlin. The Kremlin churches were harried by French soldiers and many buildings suffered from explosions executed by Napoleon’s order. However, already in 1813 most of the churches were brought to order. New large-scale construction has begun in the Kremlin in 1830.
In 1918 the Soviet government headed by V.I.Lenin moved into the Kremlin. In the building of the former Senate institutions of the Council of People's Commissars were located. The Cavaliers buildings were adapted for apartments of the members of the government. On ideological grounds in 1930s major part of the Kremlin ceremonial buildings were destroyed. The Chudov Monastery and the Cathedral of Ascension Convent were demolished, and at their site the Military School of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee was built. The Church of Constantine and Helen, Annunciation Church in Zhytniy yard, the Church of Savior-over-the-Forest were demolished. In 1937 all the towers of the Kremlin were decorated with five-pointed stars made from ruby-red glass instead of double-headed eagle. In 1959 the foundation for a new the Soviet palace for holding Party Congresses was laid on the site of demolished Egotovsk buildings of the Armory Chamber.
- The Armory Chamber
- The architectural ensemble of the Cathedral Square
- Museum of architectural history of the Moscow Kremlin in the bell tower “Ivan the Great”
- Exhibition in the Uspenskaya Belfry and the One-Pillar Chamber of the Patriarch's Palace
- Vodovzvodnaya, Borovitskaya, Komendantskaya, Oruzheynaya, Troitskaya, Kutafya, Middle Arsenalnaya, Corner Arsenalnaya, Nikolskaya, Senatskaya, Spasskaya, Tsarskaya, Nabatnaya, Konstantino-Eleninskaya, Beklemishevskaya, Petrovskaya, the First Unnamed, the Second Unnamed, Taynitskaya, Blagoveschenskaya.
- The Moscow Kremlin cathedrals: The Cathedral of the Dormition, the Annunciation Cathedral, the Cathedral of the Archangel, the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, The Cathedral of provision of curtain of the Mother of God in Blachernae the Church of the Twelve Apostles, the palace buildings, the Upper Savior’s Cathedral, Saint Basil's Cathedral
- Other Buildings: The Kremlin Arsenal, the State Kremlin Palace (the Kremlin Palace of Congresses), the Grand Kremlin Palace, the Palace of Facets, the Tsarina's Golden Chamber, The Kremlin Senate, the Kremlin Armory, The Kremlin Presidium, Squares and the gardens of the Moscow Kremlin, the Ivanovskaya Square, the Senate Square, the Cathedral Square, the Taynitsky Garden, the Grand Kremlin Square, the Red Square
- Monuments: the Tsar Cannon, the Monument to Minin and Pozharsky (on the Red Square, in front of St. Basil's Cathedral), Lenin's Mausoleum
Welcome to See
• The Tsar Cannon and Tsar Bell are famous monuments of foundry art, and are situated at Ivanovskaya square, the Kremlin Arsenal building is the rarest monument of architecture of Moscow from times of Peter the Great — and the Senate — one of the best creations of the famous architect M. Kazakov — are situated at the Senate Square. Old Russian guns and captured guns of the War of 1812 are situated next to the Kremlin Arsenal building. The Grand Kremlin Palace — the residence of Russian emperors of the XIX century is located at the Palace Square.
The demonstration of horse and foot ceremonial of the Presidential Regiment takes a place at the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin from April to October 2009 on Saturdays at 12.00 pm.
Every last Saturday of the month the ceremonial is held at the Red Square at 2.00 pm.
The Kremlin Armory
Open hours of the Armory: 10.00am, 12.00pm, 2.30pm, 4.30pm. Tickets to the Armory Museum are sold at the book offices during45 minutes before the start of the session.
The architectural ensemble of the Cathedral Square
Museum of architectural history of the Moscow Kremlin in the Ivan the Great Bell Tower. The exhibition in the Ivan the Great Bell Tower is open for visitors every day, except on Thursdays, at sessions: 10.15am, 11.30am, 13.45pm, 3.00pm, 4.00pm. Duration of the excursion with audio guide is 45 minutes. Entrance is strictly in accordance with the time indicated on tickets
Exhibitions in the Uspenskaya Belfry and the One-Pillar Chamber of the Patriarch's Palace.
You can buy tickets for an independent visit to the Kremlin and its museums at the box offices of the Alexander Garden and Kutafya tower, in the Kremlin Armory and at the Cathedral Square. The box offices are open daily, except on Thursdays, from 9.30am to 4.30pm.
Cost of Visiting