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Mamayev Kurgan

Mamaev KurganMamaev KurganMamaev KurganMamaev Kurgan

Architectural Significant Sites

Address: 400005, Russia, Volgograd Region, Volgograd, ulitsa Marshal V. Chuikova, 7

Phone: (8442) 23-7272
E-mail: mamayevhill@volgadmin.ru

http://www.mamayevhill.volgadmin.ru

Historical Inquiry

Mamayev Kurgan is a hill in the centre of Volgograd.

This place is famous for the fact that during the Second World War the Kurgan was a strategically important facility, which was severely fought for.

In the sixties of the twentieth century a memorial complex in memory of soldiers who heroically defended Stalingrad was erected on the highest point of the kurgan.

The name”Mamayev” was given to the barrow in the days of the Golden Horde. Tatar Khan Mamay, actual ruler of the Golden Horde, settled in the territory of the present-day Volgograd, making the ancient city his residence known as ”Sarai-Berke”. At the highest point of elevation Khan ordered to arrange a constant watch, as tens of kilometers of vicinage were easily visible from there. Every night the best warriors of Khan were sent to the kurgan. They were to notify the army in case of attack. Nevertheless, no historically significant events took place neither on the kurgan nor in the vicinity at the time of the Golden Horde. 

The Mamayev Kurgan entered the history much later, during the Second World War. From the top of the hill the whole city of Volgograd (at that time it was called Stalingrad), the Volga River and the interfluve area were easily visible; therefore the Kurgan was of great importance for military tactics. The party which had the Kurgan could significantly influence the outcome of a battle. Thus, during the Battle of Stalingrad, the Kurgan was recaptured several times.  

Many Russian soldiers died defending the approaches to the Mamayev Kurgan.

Russian commanders called the Mamayev Kurgan the "Height 102.0" because of the fact that the height of the Kurgan above the sea level was exactly one hundred and two meters. This name is preserved to this day, and it can be often found in historical documents.

Defense of Stalingrad and the main strategic object has been entrusted to sixty-second army under the command of the General Chuikov. Entries in military diaries evidenced on the brutal battles for control of the height 102 which lasted exactly 135 days. During this time the Kurgan was repeatedly captured by the Russians and the Germans.

On September 14, 1942, German troops managed to capture the "Height 102.0" and central railway station (located on the north side near the foot of the Kurgan). But two days later the 13th Rifle Division managed to push back the enemy and take over the control of the height. In the end of September the German troops captured the Mamayev Kurgan again, this time for a longer period. Eventually, the height was occupied by the Russian troops in January, 1943.

Immediately after the Battle of Stalingrad it was decided to create a grandiose monument in memory of fallen soldiers, the defenders of Stalingrad.

Architect I.B.Belopolskiy and sculptor E.V.Vuchetich set about the creation of the monument. The plan was to create a sculpture of great height, thus to calculate the stability of structures they needed help of Doctor of Engineering Science N.V.Nikitin, who was engaged in developing the rigidity of the Ostankino Tower in due time.

In the late fifties of the twentieth century the monument projects were completed and approved. The construction began in spring, 1959. It took eight years to finish the magnificent monument.

The ceremonial opening took place on October 15, 1967; Leonid Brezhnev himself was present at the ceremony. The central piece of the monument called “To Heroes of the Battle of Stalingrad” represent a woman's figure “Motherland” which firmly squeezes a sword in her lifted hand. The whole monument is called “Motherland is calling” since a woman with a sword encourages the Russian people to fight against the enemy. The figure is made up of concrete blocks, and weighs about 7,900 tons. The sword is made of stainless steel, and weighs fourteen tons. The Height of the woman figure is fifty-two meters, and if we add to this the height of the sword, we will get quite an impressive number - eighty-five meters. Thus, it is one of the highest monuments in the world. The whole structure is mounted on a two-meter concrete slab. To stabilize the structure and prevent its "draft", the plate was put on a strong foundation, which goes sixteen meters under the ground level.

At the foot of the Mamayev Kurgan there is ”Square of Sorrow”. A winding route leads from the square to the monument. On both sides of the terraced road (total 200 steps as the number of days during which the battle of Stalingrad lasted) the fallen soldiers were buried.

At this point more than 34 thousand soldiers were buried in the Kurgan.

On the slopes of the Mamayev Kurgan the remains of the Heroes of the Soviet Union, who died in the Battle of Stalingrad, rest; granite slabs are placed on their graves. Thus, the total number of graves is 34,540.

Available for visiting and viewing by tourists.

The introductory track, high relief “the Memory of generations”, the Alley of Lombardy poplars, the square of those who “fought to death“, the walls of the ruins, the Heroes’ Square, the Alleys of Military Glory, Square of Sorrow, the Main monuments, the Military Memorial Cemetery, Authors of the monument, state cultural institutions.

You will a have a possibility to take a walk from the foot of the Mamayev Kurgan to the sculpture "Motherland is calling" located on the top of it, to approach any of the sites, read the information about it. Visiting Mamayev Kurgan you will learn many interesting things about the history of the great battles and deeds of the heroic defenders of Stalingrad.

Status

Available for visiting and viewing by tourists.

Description

The introductory track, high relief “the Memory of generations”, the Alley of Lombardy poplars, the square of those who “fought to the death“, the walls of the ruin, the Heroes’ Square, the Alleys of Military Glory, Square of Sorrow, the Main monuments, the Military Memorial Cemetery, Authors of the monument, state cultural institutions.

Welcome to See

You will a have a possibility to take a walk from the foot of the Mamayev Kurgan to the sculpture "Motherland is calling" located on the top of it, to approach any of the sites, read the information about it. Visiting Mamayev Kurgan you will learn many interesting things about the history of the great battles and deeds of the heroic defenders of Stalingrad.

Working Time

Daily

Cost of Visiting

Free