The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Jewish Autonomous Region
Federal District: The Far Eastern Federal District
Population: 75 440 persons.
Birobidzhan is a town and the administrative centre of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia.
It was founded on 28 May 1915.
The population is 75,400.
The foundation of this town is closely related to the creation of autonomy and migration of Jews to the Russian Far East.
In 1912, during the Amur Railway construction, there was created Tikhonkaya station named after a hill of the same name situated in the neighbourhoods. On March 28, 1928, the Presidium of the General Executive Committee of the USSR passed the decree "On the attaching for Komzet of free territory near the Amur River in the Far East for settlement of the working Jews”, after which Birobidzhan Migration Post was founded, and from that time on trains carrying settlers arrived to this station.
In 1931, only 19 years after the creation of Tikhonkaya station, a quickly growing settlement was renamed to the industrial community Birobidzhan. The town is named after the two largest rivers in the autonomous oblast: the Bira and the Bidzhan on the model of Birsko-Bidzhansky District that was later transformed into the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.
Birobidzhan was granted town status on 2 March 1937.
Light industry: knitting (Victoria Association, AOOT Diamant), textile (Sewing Association “Nadezhda”), shoe, and felt boots factories.
In the late 1960s a hosiery factory was built. Machine-building is well developed. In 1936 a carts-building plant was built; in 1960 “Dalselkhozmash” Plant (later a production association) that manufactured grain and ensilage tracked harvesters was created on its basis.
Trans-Siberian Railway and the M58 “Amur” federal highway pass through the city.
Three stations Birobidzhan I (at which the terminal is located), Birobidzhan II, and Birobidzhan III are situated within the town and form a triangle — a branch railway line that goes to Leninsk station (the selo of Nizhneleninsk on the border with China) joins Trans-Siberian Railway.
A highway section enveloping the town was built in 2003—2006.
There are three bridges over the Bira that crosses the town - two highway bridges and a railway one.