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Leningrad region

Leningrad regionViborg city, Leningrad  regionGatchina city, Leningrad regionGimorecky churchyard, Leningrad region Neva river,Leningrad region Neva river,Leningrad regionLeningrad region, Cathedral of EkaterinaLeningrad regionLeningrad region

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Leningrad Region

Federal District: The North-Western Federal District

Area: 85 900 km2
Population: 1 629 451 persons.

Emblem of Leningrad  region
Emblem of Leningrad region

Flag of Leningrad region
Flag of Leningrad region



Description

Leningrad region is a  subject of Russian Federation.

This region of surprising beauty incorporates the charm of nature, the smell of a wise old times, smiles of hospitable people. Here rests the heart. It is here where every traveler feels at a certain genetic level this magical land called Russia.

The sights appear at the eyes of every tourist throughout the whole earth because of this amazing region saturated with the history of Russia and its legends. You can touch them right away, leaving the borders of the northern capital, and breathing unusually clear air of this amazing region.

Formed as a result of the administrative-territorial reform on  August 1,  1927. In the west the region borders on the river Narva in Estonia, in the north-west - on Finland, in the north and north-east on Karelia,  in the east  on the Vologda region, in the south and south-east on  Novgorod and Pskov oblast.

In the Leningrad oblast there are 16 administrative regions and 26 cities, including 15 cities of regional subordination, that are not a part of the area.

The population is about 1 million 700 thousand people.

Leningrad oblast includes 222 municipalities: one city district, 17 municipal districts, which include 62 urban settlements, 142 rural settlements.

History

On the territory of the Leningrad oblast the oldest population appeared in the XI—XII millennium B.C. after the retreat of the glacier. By the middle of a millennium. there already settled the  Finno-Ugric tribes engaged in agriculture, cattle breeding, hunting and fishing.

In the VIII century The Slavs settled on the territory. By the 750-th year appeared  Ladoga (from the XVIII century, Staraya Ladoga), the oldest Russian settlement on the territory of Russia. In  the IX—X centuries, Ladoga became a major political and economic center of the  formation and  national identity of Ancient Rus. Only at the end of X century, it loses its value, giving it to Novgorod. In the XII century, Novgorod acquired political autonomy and land on the shores of the Gulf of Finland, Luga, Neva, Ladoga, Volkhov joined the mostly Vodskaya and Obonezhsky pyatin of Novgorod Republic.

In the XIII—XIV centuries, these lands became an arena of struggle against aggression of the Livonian knights and Swedish feudal lords. In 1240 took place  the famous Battle on  the river Neva, where Russian troops under the command of Prince, Alexander Yaroslavich defeated the Swedish invaders. To protect the northwestern borders of Russia, Novgorod in the XIII—XIV centuries  creates   fortresses in Yam, Koporye, Nut, Korela, Tiversky town.

In January 1478 the Novgorod republic ceased to exist in connection with its seizure by the Moscow principality and Ivan III. At the beginning of the XVII century during the Time of Troubles Russia was cut off from the Baltic Sea: the north-wWest of the country was conquered by  Sweden.

Russia's  attempt in 1656—1658 years  to regain its  territory was not successful. At the beginning of the XVIII century because of the Northern war the territory was again joined to Russia, was built a new capital city — St. Petersburg. In 1708 was formed Ingermanlandsky province.

In 1710 it was renamed St. Petersburg,  in 1914 —Petrograd, in 1924 —Leningrad. After the October Revolution of 1917 ,in Petrograd province began to be formed Bolshevik government.

In 1919, in Petrograd Province unfolded armed confrontation of the Red Army and the troops of General N.N. Yudenich. In 1927—1929 in the Soviet Union held an administrative reform (provinces abolished), according to  which on  August 1,  1927 was founded the Leningrad region. It is composed of the territory of five regions: Leningrad, Murmansk, Novgorod, Pskov and Cherepovets. The territory is made ​​up 360.4 thousand km ², but it subsequently decreased.

During the Great Patriotic War, much of the region's territory was occupied and much damaged.

During the siege of Leningrad region took place through "The Way of Life"— the only highway linking the besieged city with the country. Great contribution to the victory over the enemy made a partisan movement: the beginning of 1944 in the region operated 13 partisan brigades, which consisted of 35 thousand soldiers. The region unfolded the longest and bloodiest in the history of World War II battle, due to the blockade of Leningrad. With the adoption of the Constitution of Russia in 1993, the Leningrad region has become the subject of the Russian Federation. In 1994 it adopted the Charter of the Leningrad Region.

Geographical location natural resources, climate

The climate is atlantic-continental. Maritime air masses are responsible for the relatively mild winter with frequent thaws and moderately warm, sometimes cool summer. The average January temperature is -8 ... -11 ° C, July +16 ... +18 ° C. The absolute maximum temperature is  +36 ° C, absolute minimum is -52 ° C. the coldest are the eastern regions, the warmest are the south-western. The highest level of rainfall is in summer and autumn. In winter, precipitation falls mainly as snow. Permanent snow cover appears in the second half of November — the first half of December. Snow melts in the second half of April.

The region's territory, except for very small south-eastern part belongs to the Baltic Sea basin and has a thick, well-developed river network. The total length of all rivers in the Leningrad oblast is about 50 thousand km. Also in the area located 1,800 lakes, including Lake Ladoga — the largest in Europe.
The most  of the area is swamped. Area entirely situated on the territory of the East European (Russian) Plain. This explains the nature of the terrain is flat with minor altitude (generally 50-150 meters above sea level). The territory of the Karelian isthmus (and especially its north-western part) differs rugged, with numerous rocky outcrops and lots of lakes. Karelian Isthmus is the part of the Baltic Shield.

The highest point of the Karelian isthmus is Mount Kivisyurya height 203 m above sea level (according to the Finnish pre-war surveyors — 205 m), located near the village of Novozhilov, a tract of Stone Mountain. The lowlands are mostly located on the shores of the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, and in the valleys of major rivers. The main ones are Vyborg, Priozersk, Ladoga, Predglintovy (Maritime) Plyussa, Luga, Volkhov, Svirsky and Tikhvin. The largest elevations are Lembolovsky, Izhorsky Lodeynoy Pole, Veps Hills and Tikhvin ridge.

An interesting geographical feature is the Baltic-Ladoga ledge (Glint) - high (40-60 feet) cliff, stretching over 200 km from west to east area. It is an ancient sea shore.

Industry

In the structure of manufacturing industries dominate food and tobacco, vehicles and equipment, coke and petroleum products, pulp and paper production, publishing and printing.

Agriculture

Agriculture has a marked suburban specialization, leading the industry - dairy and beef cattle, potatoes and vegetables. At the same animal products significantly dominates agriculture.

A significant part of the crop of potatoes and vegetables provide private farms of the population. The main vegetable crops are cabbage, carrots, cucumbers, onions, beets. Also in the area of ​​cultivated crops: barley, rye, oats, mainly to feed livestock and poultry.

In addition, in developing farming: bred mink, muskrat, blue and black and silver fox and other animals.

Transport

Leningradskaya oblast is connected by air with other regions of Russia and foreign countries through the international airport Pulkovo.

Rail transport

Leningrad region has a well-developed rail network. The total length of railways is more than 3 kilometers. The main road leads from St. Petersburg to Moscow, Pskov, Helsinki, Tallinn, Petrozavodsk, Vologda, Sortavala and Dno. On the train you can get to almost any city in the region.

Urban Transport

It is well represented in the Leningrad oblast by bus. On the bus from St. Petersburg you can get to almost any area of ​​the village, as well as to many cities abroad. For example, in Novgorod, Pskov, Moscow. The prices are often lower than on the train. But the bus can be in a traffic jam at the exit of the St. Petersburg or the entrance into it.

Water transport

As in the Leningrad oblast there are many waterways are developed water transport. Sea ports are in Vysotsk, Vyborg, Primorsk and Ust-Luga. By the rivers Volkhov, Svir, Neva and many others started up the court. Developed are the water routes in the suburbs of St. Petersburg - Lomonosov and Kronstadt.

The region has a well developed road network.

The main road:

• M10 ("Russia"). St. Petersburg - Moscow via Tosno, Luban, Veliky Novgorod and Tver

• M10 ("Scandinavia"). St. Petersburg - Vyborg in Finland

• M11 ("Narva"). St. Petersburg - Ivangorod through Kingisepp

• M18 ("Cole"). St. Petersburg - Murmansk through the field Lodeynoye

• M20 ("Pskov"). St. Petersburg - Belarus through Gatchina, Luga, Pskov

• A114. Isaad - Vologda through Tikhvin

• A115. Novaya Ladoga - Zuevo through the Volkhov and Kirishi

• A120 ("Backbone"). Serovo - Big Izhora through Kirovsk

• A121. St. Petersburg - the first of May through the Pine Bor

• A122. St. Petersburg - Tolokonnikova a May Day

• A123. Sestroretsk - Vyborg through Zelenogorsk

• A124. Vyborg - Finland through Svetogorsk

• A125. Youth - Vyborg through Kamenka

• A127. Losevo - Finland through Zhitkova

• A129. St. Petersburg -  Sortavala Priozersk

Attractions

 Other attractions:

  •  Pavlova and Koltushi (Vsevolozhsk District)
  • Memorial "Nevsky snout"
  •  Lindulovskaya Grove (Vyborg district)
  •  Neva River Baltic-Ladoga ledge (Glint)
  •  Koltushskie height (Vsevolozhsk District)
  • Yukkolovskaya height (Vsevolozhsk District)

Famous natives of the area

  • Tomberg, Elizabeth Stepanovna (1909—1988) was an actress, People's Artist of USSR (1959)
  • Gorshenev, Mikhail Y. (1973) is a singer and founder of the rock group "The King and the Clown"
  • Peter Schwindt is an archaeologist who has devoted his life to the excavations of antiquities in Karelia, and in particular, the Karelian Isthmus.
  • Phones for communication in emergencies
    Regional Rescue Service
    Phones of Duty (clock):
    (812) 380-91-19 (multichannel), (812) 545-47-45, (812) 545-35-18
    Sources of information on tourism opportunities in the region
    Information and tourist center of the Leningrad Region:
    Saint-Petersburg, 4. Torzhkovskaya street
    Tel. / Fax: (812) 496-3949, (812) 496-3970
    www.lentravel.ru
    e-mail: lentravel@mail.ru
    Territorial authorities of Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations
    Emergency - 112 - a single emergency number for calls from cell phones in emergencysituations (calls can be made even without a SIM card, no money in the account and the phone keypad is locked)