The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Central Federal District
Area: 45 800 km2
Population: 6 752 677 persons.
Emblem of Moscow region
Flag of Moscow region
Moscow region is the subject of the Russian Federation.
The region was formed by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on January 14, 1929.
It borders: in the north-west on the Tver region, in the north — on Yaroslavl, in the north-east and east — with Vladimir, in the southeast with the Ryazan region in the south on Tula, in the south — west - Kaluga, in the west with the Smolensk regions.
The average population density is 147.4 persons /km² (2010) The proportion of urban population — 80.85% (2010).
The current territory of the Moscow region has been inhabited for over 20,000 years ago. The region is known for the numerous mounds, Iron Age forts up to the IX—X centuries the territory of the Moscow River and adjacent lands had inhabited mostly the Finno-Ugric tribes. The Slavs, began actively develop in this area only in the X century.
In the middle of the XII century, the land of the current Moscow region became part of the Vladimir-Suzdal principality. By this time, there were active cities: Volokolamsk (1135), Moscow (1147), Zvenigorod (1152), Dmitrov (1154). In the first half of the XIII century, all of Vladimir-Suzdal land, including land near Moscow, was conquered by the Mongols.
History of the suburbs are inextricably connected with many military events — the Trinity siege, the first and second militias.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate
The climate is continental in the Moscow region, seasonality clearly expressed, warm summers, moderately cold winters; continentality increases from the northwest to the southeast. Period with average temperature below 0 ° C lasts for 120—135 days, starting in mid-November and ending in late March. The average annual temperature in the region varies from 2,7 to 3,8 ° C. The coldest month is January (average temperature in the west is -10 ° C, in the east -11 ° C). With the arrival of arctic air severe frost comes (below -20 ° C), which lasts up to 40 days during the winter (but usually frosty periods are much shorter) in some years the frost reaches -45 ° C (the lowest absolute minimum temperature was recorded in Naro-Fominsk -54 ° C). In winter (especially in December and February) a thaw caused by the Atlantic, and (rarely) the Mediterranean cyclones, they are usually of short duration, average duration of 4 days, the total number from November to March - up to fifty. Snow cover usually appears in November (although there were years when he appeared at the end of September and December), disappears in mid-April (sometimes earlier, in late March).
All the rivers in the Moscow region belong to the basin of the Volga (Volga itself flows through the area on a small area, which forms the border with the Tver region).
The northern part of the region, including the entire Upper Volga lowland, watered by tributaries of the Volga (Shoshey, Lama, Dubna, Sestra, Yakhroma), the southern also — tributaries of the Oka (Lopasney, Nara, Protva, etc.), the largest river after the Volga is Moscow, in Moscow Region. The Oka basin is owned tributaries of the Moskva River, which flows within the Moscow region for most of stretch. The eastern and north-eastern region, including much of Meshchora, watered tributaries Klyazma, one of the main tributaries of the Oka and outrage within the Moscow region back.
The territory occupied by the Moscow area, located in the central part of the East European platform.
In terms of industrial production the Moscow region is the second largest (after Moscow). With the growing demand for special impetus was the production of concrete, phosphorus, peat, clay, sand, crushed stone and gravel.
In terms of industrial production of the Moscow region among the regions of Russia is the second largest (after Moscow). Mechanical engineering and metalworking. Equipment is made of thermal and nuclear power, nuclear fuel, space and rocketry, locomotives, subway cars, electric trains, cars, buses, agricultural machines, excavators and cranes, high-quality steel, light industry equipment, cables, optical instruments. On the territory of a particular concentration of defense enterprises. The timber industry is developed.
In the Moscow region agriculture is represented by crop and cattle breeding. About 40% of the Moscow lands are used in agriculture. Crop production is characterized primarily for the southern region. Most of the acreage (more than 3/5) is occupied by forage crops. Large areas are reserved for grain crops: (wheat, barley, oats and rye). Significant role in crop production in the region is potatoes. Distributed by greenhouse horticulture, for example, in the city of Moscow is Europe's largest greenhouse complex, flowers also grown, fungi (mushrooms etc). In the livestock dominates crop production, and mainly focused on the production of milk and meat. In addition to cattles, are commonly bred pigs and chickens.
The region has the largest in Russia and the former Soviet Union Moscow railway junction (from Moscow run 11 radial directions, the length of railways of general use up to 2,700 km the density of railways is the largest in Russia). Railroads are mostly electrified. Almost entirely in the Moscow region are a large rail ring connecting all the radial direction. The largest yards in the region are Orekhovo and Bekasovo - are on the large ring.
Regular Shipping is on the rivers Volga, Oka and Moscow, as well as on the Moscow Canal. Major river ports are Serpukhov and Kolomna.
In the Moscow region there are three large passenger airport with international status - Sheremetyevo (with four terminals), Domodedovo and Vnukovo. An airport co-location Ostafyevo, Bykovo airport is currently closed and only used as a landing pad for helicopters, MOE and the Interior Ministry. The largest military airfield is Chkalovsky (near the town of Schyolkovo), except for military and civilian can receive routes (there is a complete infrastructure in the late 1990's were carried out charter flights).
Moscow region ranks first among Russian regions by the number of recreational facilities. They are located mainly in the western, northwestern and northern parts of the region and also near Moscow. There are therapeutic recreation resources. For recreation forests are very important, they occupy over 40% of the region.
• Museum-estate "Arkhangelsk"
• Vysotsky Monastery
• New Jerusalem Monastery
• Military-Historical Museum "Borodino"
• Ilinskaya Church
• House of Tchaikovsky
- Goncharov Andrey (1918—2001) — a theater director, People's Artist of USSR (1977)
- Kopalin Ilya Petrovich (1900—1976) — director of documentary films, People's Artist of USSR (1968)
- Maretskaya Vera Petrovna (1906—1978) — film and stage actress, People's Artist of USSR (1949)
- Orlova Lyubov Petrovna (1902—1975) — film and stage actress, People's Artist of USSR (1950)
- Popov Oleg Konstantinovich (b.1930) — a circus performer, clown, People's Artist of USSR (1969)
- Prudkin Mark Isaakovich (1898—1994) — film and theater actor, People's Artist of USSR (1961)
- Sazonova Nina (1917—2004) — film and stage actress, People's Artist of USSR (1977)
- Sveshnikov Alexander (1890—1980) — choral conductor, People's Artist of USSR (1965)
- Sorokina Nina (b.1942) — dancer, People's Artist of USSR (1987)
- Sperantova Valentina (1904—1978) — film and stage actress, People's Artist of USSR (1970)
- Talankin Igor . (b.1927) — director of theater and cinema, People's Artist of USSR (1988)
- Tikhonov Vyacheslav (1928—2009) — Soviet and Russian actor and People's Artist of USSR (1974)
- Flier Yakov Vladimirovich (1912—1977) — an outstanding pianist, People's Artist of USSR (1966)
- Khanayeva Eugenya Nikandrovna (1921—1987) — film and stage actress, People's Artist of USSR (1987)
- Shchukin Boris Vasilevich (1894—1939) — film and theater actor, People's Artist of USSR (1936).