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Yaroslavl

 Historic-Architectural Museum of YaroslavlTopiary in the form of the heraldic bearChurch of Ilia the ProphetYaroslavl linen manufactory

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Yaroslavl Region

Federal District: The Central Federal District

Area: 205,37 km2
Population: 606 336 persons.


Description

Yaroslavl is a  city in Russia, the administrative center of  the Yaroslavl region.

The year of foundation is 1010.

The area of the city is 205.37 km².

The population of 606,336 people (2009). Internal division is of 6 districts.

History

In Soviet historiography, scientists note that the foundation of the city could have happened in quite a considerable time period: from 988 in 1024 years. Meanwhile, in 1010 — a date tab fortress, most researchers seem most credible, since 1010 — last year of Yaroslav Vladimirovich in Rostov. Throughout its thousand-year history of Yaroslavl has acted as one of the mainstays of the Russian statehood.

The city was given the high value by the rulers of Russia, the reigning family of Rurik and Romanov, and later the Soviet leadership. The very fact of the city is the act of an independent political will, the young Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich (the Wise), who laid on the Volga the fort in 1010 to secure the north-eastern borders of the Kievan Rus. Yaroslavl has emerged as the first Christian city on the Volga.

The XVIII century was a critical line for the city. With the construction of St. Petersburg happened in  the city with the economic reorientation of trade on industrial and commercial base. The reign of Peter the Great was a milestone, as later for Moscow fire of 1812, which radically altered the social, political and economic basis of the ancient capital, a milestone that determined and the current status of the city as an industrial and cultural center of Russia.

In 1750, in Yaroslavl, A.F. Volkov founded the first Russian provincial private theater. In the early 90's of the  XVIII century was found a remarkable monument of ancient Russian literature — " the Lay of Igor's Warfare ".  After completion of the Great Patriotic War in Yaroslavl, a powerful industrial base was created. Development of the industrial potential of the city was held under the patronage of the Government of the USSR.

Geographical position

Yaroslavl is located in the central part of the East European Plain (more precisely, at the Yaroslavl,- Kostroma valley) on both banks of the Volga River at the confluence of the rivers Kotorosl, in 282 km to the north-east of Moscow. The city covers an area of 205.37 km². The average height of the city center is 100 meters above sea level.

Industry

Yaroslavl is a major industrial center. Engineering industry is represented by such enterprises as the engine plant (formerly the car plant, preparing to celebrate the century anniversary), electric locomotive factory, Car Repair Plant, Electric Machine Works, a shipyard. Substantial progress have oil refining and chemical industries. Also there is a number of light (factory milled footwear, textiles and haberdashery, sewing factory) and food (dairy products plant,  brewery Baltika).

A significant development has oil refining and chemical industries. In Yaroslavl in 1932 launched the world's first synthetic rubber plant (now redeveloped in a research institute). Now is working a refinery company OJSC "Slavneft-Yaroslavnefteorgsintez" (abbr. YANOS), tire factory, paint factory «DuPont» and «Lakokraska" Carbon Black Plant, Pharmaceutical Factory.

It also operates a number of light (factory milled footwear, textile haberdashery, sewing factory) and food industry (dairy factory, a brewery "Baltika" - formerly of "Yarpivo", etc.), tobacco ("Balkan Star") , a furniture factory.

In Yaroslavl there is a headquarters of the Territorial Generating Company № 2 (TGC-2) - one of the energy companies established in the reform of RAO "UES of Russia". TGC-2 belongs to Yaroslavl CHPP-1, TPP and TPP-2-3.

Near the town of Yaroslavl is based oil management office of "Baltnefteprovod" Vologda oil management office JSC "Northern oil pipelines," pumping stations of JSC "Transnefteproduct" (subsidiaries of OJSC "AK" Transneft ").

In the 2000s, construction of a number of modern enterprises with foreign investment was begun. In particular, in the free areas near the city is built a large plant for the assembly of road vehicles by the Japanese company Komatsu, Swiss based pharmaceutical factory Nycomed and others.

Transportation

Yaroslavl is located at the crossroads of important road, rail and waterways. In particular, it passes through Yaroslavl federal road M8 "Kholmogory Moscow - Yaroslavl - Vologda - Arkhangelsk, Kostroma to Yaroslavl highway that connects the A113 with the Rybinsk - R151.

 Across the river Volga is spanned one railway and two road bridges ("October" and "Jubilee"). Kotorosl routed through four road bridges and one railway (the last was built in 1896 on the draft LD Proskurjakova). Intercity bus tours depart from the bus station of Yaroslavl. Bus routes connect the city with a considerable number of settlements as a region (including Pereslavl-Zalesski, Rybinsk, Uglich, etc.) and other entities of the Federation (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Ufa, Kostroma, Kazan, Cherepovets, etc.) .

Two of the main railway stations in the city are "Yaroslavl-Main" and "Yaroslavl-Moskovsky. Suburban electric trains go to Danilov, Rostov, Alexandrov Nerekhta and Kostroma. Commuter trains on diesel traction go to Rybinsk and Ivanovo. Yaroslavl also pass through the many long-distance trains departing from Moscow's Yaroslavl Station, in addition, the city associated with the capital of low electric-train.

Airports serving the city of Yaroslavl: Tunoshna, Levtsovo, Karachiha (all located outside the city limits). Having the status of international airport "Tunoshna" is capable of receiving vessels of various types, up to the An-124 Ruslan and Il-96-300. Powered river station, taking cruise ships, making a stop in the city, as well as providing regular flights of "Meteor" and river tram in Breytovo, Tolga, Konstantinova, Vakarevo, New Chentsov (in 2010). The city is well connected by public transport.

 Attractions

 In the city are located 785 historical and cultural monuments (7 archeological monuments, a 43-story, 13-art, 722-architecture).

• The cultural layer of the city of Yaroslavl

 • Manor Sorokin

• House of Charyshnikov (Church)

• House of Saltykov (Municipal Bank)

 • The building of the Noble Pension

 • Church of Spas "in the City"

• Church of the Nativity

 • Church of the Annunciation

• Yaroslavl Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve

• The historic center of Yaroslavl (UNESCO)

Famous people of the city

 • Leonid Sobinov (1872-1934) - a prominent Russian opera singer (lyric tenor), People's Artist of Russia, the largest representative of classical Russian vocal school.

 • Nikolai Nekrasov (1821-1877) - Russian poet, novelist and essayist.

 • Leonid Trefolev (1839-1905) - Russian poet and essayist

. • Valentina Tereshkova (born 1937) - Soviet cosmonaut, first woman cosmonaut, Hero of the Soviet Union, major general.

 • Fedor Tolbukhin (1894-1949) - an outstanding Soviet commander, Marshal of the Soviet Union, Hero of the Soviet Union (posthumously), the People's Hero of Yugoslavia, the Hero of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (posthumous), Chevalier of the Order of Victory.