The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Central Federal District
Area: 187,7 km2
Population: 492 000 persons.
Tula is the administrative center of Tula Oblast, the hero-city.
The city's constant population is about 500 thousand people.
The distance from Moscow to Tula is 193 km
Probably, the formation of the original settlement of Tula is dated from XI-XII centuries, and for the first time it is mentioned in Nikonovsk chronicle in 1146. Apparently, the title "Tula" is closely connected with the river Tulitsa and most likely is interpreted as "hidden, inaccessible place, ark of refuge, asylum for protection".
The first Tula settlement was located on the right bank of Upa, near the outfall of Tulitsa. In XIII century, the north-east part of Chernigov duchy, which included Tula, was occupied by Ryazan knyazes.
In 1430-1434, Tula was the demesne of Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas according to the agreement with Ryazan Knyaz Ivan Fedorovich. The accession of Tula to Moscow territories happened under Vasily II (1425-1462), and since its historical development has been connected with Moscow duchy.
Since XVI century, Tula became to have a significant strategic importance, because it was located on the south margins of Moscow State, on its steppe border and near to several roads along which the Tatars moved. In order to strengthen this border, the wooden jail with double wall and turrets on the left bank of Upa, which is less flooded, was built at Knyaz Vasily III dictation in Tula in 1509.
In 1514, the construction of a stone fortress was begun within an oak fortress and finished in 1520. In contrast to rounded shapes of an oak fortress, Tula's Kremlin had the shape of a regular quadrilateral. The stone Kremlin became to head back the way to Moscow duchy, taking upon itself the Tatar raids. The Kremlin became the center of Tula. Streets and roads went to the Kremlin's walls from all gate towers and passable gateways of the oak town. Squares and city's buildings were placed near the Kremlin. The Cathedral of the Assumption, houses of vaivodes and the protopapas were built in the Kremlin. There were also "siege yards", where in anxious times the surrounding population was hidden, and cage-houses, where craftsmen worked. One of the first Tula's streets - Great Kremlin's Street – was formed among the built-up Kremlin.
In 1552, Tula's Kremlin stood hard siege of the Crimean Khan Devlet Girey I, which has led to Tula his thirty-thousand army. The townsfolk has repelled the attack of Crimean troops until the arrival of Ivan Grozniy's army. To avoid the constant threat of attack, the Moscow government has engaged in the foundation of a defense perimeter - abatis defense line - from the middle of XVI century. The line was considered as preserved, and a passing and travelling through it in unpermitted places was prohibited. Due to the fact that Tula was situated in the center of this defense line, it along with its south margin took upon itself all dangers of the overrun.
In XVII century, Tula became witness of the intervention in Russia. In 1605, Tula was occupied by Lzhedmitry, and there he expected the fall of Moscow. In 1607, peasant rebels under the leadership of Bolotnikov occupied Tula. Only four months later, Moscow troops under the command of Vasily Shuisky have been able to break the resistance, ponded Upa and flooded the Kremlin. The events of the Time of Troubles devastated and destroyed the town. Due to the state's demand for metal and armament, Moscow knyazes turned attention to the organization of own arms industry at the late of XV century. The Decree of Tsar Fedor Ivanovich, which freed of Tula's "home-made" blacksmithes from tributes and territorial duties, and obligated them to produce state weapons, served as the beginning of the development of gun smithing in Tula.
In XVII century, factories for the producing of cast iron and ferrum from iron stone, and weapons casting, were emerged in Tula. The first weapons factory in Tula was built by Russian Dutch Vinius; the permission for the construction of it he has obtained by Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich in 1632. Later, new factories, which produced not only military but also household metal products, were built near Tula by his partners - Peter Marselius and Philemon Akema.
XVIII century was a new era in the development of the city. Since the time of Peter I, Tula's arms production was taken over by local blacksmiths - gunsmiths, and, above all, by the enterprising and skilled armourer Nikita Demidovich Demidov, who was the ancestor of industrialists, well-known in XVIII century. Later, under the decree of Peter I, the first rifle manufactory was built in Tula; that was a state weapons factory, which served as the basis of the whole gun smithing in Russia. In 1712, State weapons factory, concentrated a dispersed handicraft industry of blacksmiths – gunsmiths, and was built.
In XVIII century, Tula became known as a great industrial center of the iron and cast iron production. In 1777, Tula - the provincial town of Moscow governorate – became primarily the vicegerency with a range of district cities, and autonomous civil administration, and in 1797, became the center of Tula governorate, remained the center of Tula district.
In the late XIX — early XX century, large enterprises of metallurgical, metalworking, military, and sugar industry were built in Tula; they along with the weapons factory, that has reconstructed in 1870—1973, ranged among the largest industrial enterprises in Russia. Coincidently with the large industry, the handicraft industry — hard, samovar, harmony, gingerbread production - was developed.
In 1898, the Social Democratic group was emerged in Tula. The committee of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was founded in 1901. Soviet power was established on December 7 (20) in 1917.
During the Civil War the city was the center of the Red Army.
In October—December 1941, within 45 days (Tula operation), Tula was within almost absolute ring of siege, incurred to artillery and mortar attack and air strikes of Hitlerite aviation.
Under the attacks of the Red Army, the enemy has retired to the south, the siege of Tula was relieved.
Tula is situated almost in the center of European Russia on the Central Russian Upland, within steppe and forest steppe zones.
The main Tula's waterway is the river Upa, the right tributary of Oka. 3 tributaries fall into Upa within the territory of Tula– Tulitsa, Voronka and Bezhka.
The climate is moderately continental, that is characterized by enough warm summer with the average temperature in July +18.4 °C and moderately cold winter. The average temperature in January is −7.5 °C in Tula.
The annual precipitation is 500–700 mm.
Tula is a developed industrial center of Russia.
Metallurgy industry, machinery and metal working, food production is very important in the industrial structure of Tula.
Tula is a great railway junction, connected with Moscow, Petersburg, south resorts of Russia. There are two railway stations in Tula – Moscow and Ryazhsk.
The bus service is developed.
- Tula's Kremlin
- Tula's State Museum of Weapons
- The museum "Tula samovars"
- The museum "Tula spice cake"
- Tula's regional exotarrium
- Tula's Regional Museum of Fine Arts
- Tula's State Circus
Famous people of the city
- Ivan Bolotnikov (? -1608) is the leader of the Peasants' War, 1606-1607
- Nikita Demidov (1656—1725) is Russian industrialist
- Batashevs Brothers is the largest steel industrialist, founders and owners of one and half dozen factories
- Dmitry Dokhturov (1759—1816) is Russian general, the hero of the War of 1812
- Aleksey Homyakov (1804-1860) is Russian poet, publicist, theologian and philosopher
- Konstantin Ushinsky (1824-1870) is Russian teacher, the founder of scientific pedagogy in Russia
- Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin (1826-1889) is famous Russian writer and satirist
- Lev Tolstoy (1828-1910) is famous Russian writer
- Nikolai Beloborodov (1828-1912) is accordionist, teacher, bandmaster, arranger and maker of the chromatic accordion, the founder of the world's first orchestra of accordionists
- Vasily Batashev (1840 - up to 1896) is Tula's merchant of the first guild, founder of the steam samovar factory of brothers Batashevs
- Leonti Chulkov (1846-1918) is harmony master, designer of harmonics
- Alexander Batashev (1848-1912) is one of the founders of Moscow Zoo, philanthropist, founder of Russian poultry industry
- Sergey Mosin (1849-1902) is Russian designer and organizer of the production of small-arms weapon
- Vsevolod Rudnev (1855-1913) is the hero of the Russian-Japanese war, Rear-Admiral of the Fleet, commander of the famous cruiser "Varangian"
- Peter Belousov (1856-1896) is Doctor of Medicine, Medical Officer, the creator of one of the best city parks in Russia
- Vikentiy Veresaev (1867—1945) is Russian writer
- Fedor Tokarev (1871-1968) is Soviet designer of small-arms weapon, the Hero of Socialist Labor (1940)
- Marya Uspenskaya (1876-1949) is Russian-American actress, the Oscar Awards nominee
- Vasily Degtyarev (1879-1949) is designer of small-arms weapon
- Michael Menzbir (1885-1935) is Soviet zoologist and ornithologist, the member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1929)
- Vsevolod Sanaev (1912-1996) is Soviet film and theater actor, National Artist of the USSR (1969)
- Nikolai Makarov (1914-1988) is Soviet designer of small-arms weapon
- Boris Safonov (1915-1942) is Soviet pilot, the hero of World War II, twice the Hero of the Soviet Union
- Algirdas Greimas (1917-1992) is Lithuanian and French philologer
- Ivan Davydov (b. 1918) is a participant of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945), a member of the defense of Tula. He worked as deputy chairman of Tula and Prioka Councils of National Economy, Deputy Chairman of the Board of the Central Union of Consumer Cooperatives of the USSR, from 1969 to 1987 - Deputy Minister of Commerce of the USSR
Phones for communication in emergencies
- Fire emergency — 01
- Police — 02
- Emergency Control Centre of STSI — 002
- Ambulance — 03
- Paid ambulance — 003
- The first-aid and emergency station — (4872) 36-3580
- Emergency dispatcher service (all issues) — 005
- Emergency service of city gas — 04
- Pasteur post (animal bites) — (4872) 31-0626
- Dental health service — (4872) 21-5427
- Hotline of Department of Internal Affairs — (4872) 32-2285
- Hotline of STSI — (4872) 42-5555
- Center for Veterinary Care (within 24 hours) — (4872) 31-5119
- Tow truck — (4872) 26-8385, (4872) 45-1295, (4872) 28-1913
- Telephone of psychological aid («crisis center») — (4872) 49-0200, (4872) 49-0302
- Rescue service (an opening of doors, etc.) — (4872) 41-1911
- Bureau of registration of accidents — (4872) 23-3223
- All-night drugstores — (4872) 36-2991, (4872) 31-2661
- Injury care center — (4872) 31-0568
- Childish injury care center — (4872) 31-0466
Sources of information on tourism opportunities in the Oblast
Territorial bodies of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia
State administration of fire inspection of Chief Directorate of the MES of Russia for Tula Oblast:
300034, Tula, Lenina av., b. 28
Telephone: (4872) 36-44-74