The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Privolzhsky Federal District
Area: 466 km2
Population: 1 134 000 persons.
Samara is a major Russian city and the administrative center of Samara oblast.
The population is about 1 134 000 people (2010).
The city area is 466 km².
Year of foundation: 1586.
According to official data, Samara was founded in 1586, but in some historical documents there can be found earlier references to this city. In “Stepennaya kniga” (1561-1563) there is information about Samara urochishche (plot of land) that existed as long ago as 1357. Beside that, there's an Italian map issued in 1459, where Samara fortress is depicted, though the word “fortress” doesn't suit especially well for the settlement that probably existed here in the middle of XV century. Some folk tales say that at the place where now the city stands there used to be a camp of ataman Yermak Timofeyevich (the Cossack chieftain).
The fortress of Samara that got its name from the river was built very fast. The erection started in spring and was finished by the next year winter. The first inhabitants were service class men: boyars' children, streltsy ('riflesmen'), artillerists and gates guards who defended the new fortress from “robber people” and Nogai assaults. Here also served “foreign battle people” that were hired by the Tzar. Samara fortress wasn't a large one: just a wooden wall with towers and arrow-loops around several dozens of houses. The fortress was governed by a military governor that took orders from Kazan court. All the administrative and military power was concentrated in his hands.
At the turn of XVII century the Russian state was shaken by a great number of rebellions, plots, revolts and the intervention. That time was called “The Time of Troubles”, and those troubles didn't come by Samara. In 1670 Samara supported the rebels led by Stepan Razin and spent a year under Cossack outlaws, but when the inhabitants found out that the rebels had been smashe up, they acknowledged their fault before the government.
In 1688 Samara officially became a city, and its trade significance grew with every passing year. In the period between 1773 and 1780 Samara turned into an out-of-the-way town with Stavropol-on-Volga (present Tolyatti) becoming the centre of the uyezd. At that time it was larger than Samara. In 1780 uyezd with Samara as its head entered Simbirskaya guberniya.
On January 1, 1851 Samara became the main city of the new guberniya with population of 20 thousand people. As a gubeniya capital, Samara got a coat of arms. Governors were due to rule the guberniya and to establish law and order there.
The Octover revolution happened here without a single shot, but in 1918 Samara was overtaken by city insurgent armies and White Czechs – a Chezhoslovak corps of prisoners of war from Austro-Hungarian army. The power over the city was passed to the Constituent Assembly Members Committee, that stood for the democracy restoration in Russia. The Soviet power in the guberniya city was restored by the armies of Vasily Ivanovich Chapayev and Gaya Dmitriyevich Gay in November 1918. In 1919 Samara was attacked by admiral Kolchak's army, but the city wasn't taken. Dmitry Mikhaylovich Karbyshev ensured the city defence and Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky commanded the first Eastern front army.
During the Great Patriotic War Samara became the 'reserve' capital. Government bodies led by Mikhail Ivanovich Kalilin, a part of military administration, People's commissariat of the foreign affairs, the whole diplomatic corps – 20 embassies and missions were evacuated here. A unique underground bunker was built specially for Stalin; it has survived to the present day in perfect condition. Here was evacuated the Bolshoy theatre troup; here during the war years lived Dmitry Shostakovich, Ilya Erenburg, Vsevolod Ivanov, Valentin Katayev. The largest defence plants were also evacuated to Samara; they produced goods for the front. In the guberniya there are 263 Heroes of the Soviet Union and 26 full Cavaliers of the Orden of Glory.
Samara is a major center for engineering and metalworking, food processing, as well as space and aviation industries.
The city is one of the Russia's largest traffic centres. Through Samara pass the shortest ways from the central and western Europe to Siberia, Central Asia and Kazakhstan. An international airport Kurumoch that takes nearly all the types of aircraft.
The Samara river port is the largest transport junction in the Russian Middle Volga lands. The geographical position of the port that borders on the developed railroad and highway systems ensures economically profitable connections to the Urals, Siberia, Central Asia, central and northern parts of European part of Russia. The port also is connected to the Volga-Kama and Volga-Don basins as well as the Baltic, the White, the Azov, the Black, the Caspian and the Mediterranean seas.
The “oldest” Samara transport means is a tram. It traces its history back to a horsetram that started to run through Samara in the 1890s. Nowadays a tram is one of the most comfortable means of transport in Samara.
The youngest Samara transport type is underground. River transport is especially popular in summer.
Places of interest
· Stalin's bunker
· “Space Samara” museum
· The museum of JSC “Avtovaz”
· The national park “Samara Bend”
· Samara quay and Volga voyages
Emergency phone numbers
United emergency care —112
United rescue service — 01
· Registration of accidents
Samara, Novo-Sadovaya Str., 30
Phone: (846) 334-1740
· Samara oblast search and rescue service of the Russian Ministry of Emergency situations
Samara, Kuybysheva Str., 129
Phone: (846) 333-5012, (846) 333-5514
· Chemical-radiometric laboratory of the Russian Ministry of Emergency situations
Phone: (846) 333-4479
· The central Volga life station
Samara, Volzhsky avenue, 2a
Phone: (846) 333-4834
· Samara regional emergency medicine centre
Samara, Polevaya Str., 80
Phone: (846) 3370-878, (846) 337-1402
· Samara administration operational service
Samara, Kuybysheva Str., 137
Phone: (846) 332-0434
Sources of information on region tourist facilities
The Samara oblast state-financed organization “Tourist information centre”
Samara, Chapayevskaya Str., 201 (the Samara hotel), story 3, office 405
Phone: (846) 341-6866
· Nonprofit partnership “Tolyatti tourist information centre”
Samara oblast, Stavropolsky municipal region, Tolyatti, Golosova Str., 99, office 10
The address of a satellite office — Samara oblast, Stavropolsky municipal region, Tolyatti, Dzerzhinskogo Str., 21 (Shopping and entertainment centre “Kapital”, -1 story, office 033 A
Phone: (848) 295-2143
· The number in the Single Federal tour operators register —– ВНТ 003271
Website — www.city-on-volga.ru