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administrative center of the  Rostov region. administrative center of the  Rostov region. Rostov SsynagogueRostov Drama theatre after M. Gorki

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Rostov Region

Federal District: The Southern Federal District

Area: 354 km2
Population: 1 048 000 persons.


Rostov-on-Don — a city in Russia, the administrative center of the Rostov Region.

The city was founded in 1749.

The city's area is 354 km².

The population is 1,048,000 people.


In the territory of the city there are ruins of ancient settlements, which were built  in different periods — up to 5,000 years ago, but the modern  history of the city starts from the time of the Azov campaigns of Peter the Great (1695—1696), who drew attention to a plot of land with a spring named Bogatiy Kolodez (Rich Well).

Rostov remained to be soviet until July of 1942 when, after a failure the Red Army’s attack near Kharkov, the German High Command launched an attack to the Kuban and the Caucasus.On July 24, 1942 the 17th Army of Wehrmacht entered Rostov . For this once the Soviet troops made no required resistance to the enemy, that was noted in a text of the famous order No. 227 of the people’s commissariat of defense   — "Not a step back!".

On February 14, 1943 after the victory near Stalingrad during an all-out attack of the Red Army, Rostov-on-Don was finally redeemed from German troops.

Nowadays, Rostov-on-Don is one of the most developed cities in the country; it has a great number of large manufacturing centers, cultural and architectural monuments, museums and theatres.

Geographical position

Rostov-on-Don is mostly located on the right bank of the Don River, on the left bank there are some industrial plants and places of entertainment. South-western outskirts of the city verge on the delta of the Don River.


The main industrial sectors of Rostov-on-Don are machine manufacturing, instrumentation, chemical production, consumer goods industry.

The major industrial plants of Rostov-on-Don are:

  • OAO Almaz – production of electronic warfare and communications equipment
  • Atlantis-Pack – production of artificial sausage casing
  • OAO Gorizont – manufacturer of navigation radar for civil fleet and marine forces, border surveillance means, display facilities for different purposes, electronic calculators
  • OAO Zavod Kvant – the only one plant for production of a wide range of instruments for orientation of space vehicles
  • Zolotoy Kolos (individual entrepreneur Abacharaev) – pastry business
  • Rosvertol – manufacturer of helicopters Mi-24, Mi-26, Mi-28, Mi-35
  • Rostprodmash – manufacturer of equipment for flavoring industry


Rostov-on-Don is a major transport junction.

Rostov-on-Don is crossed by: the railway line “St.Petersburg-Rostov-Caucasus”, the navigable way, which goes from the center of Russia towards the Black and the Mediterranean Seas; and the air line “St.Petersburg-Moscow-Caucasus”.

The administration of a North Caucasus Railway is based in in the city.

In Rostov-on-Don operate: 72 bus, 9 trolley, 4 tram and 54 mini-bus taxi routes. Fares in urban mass transport are the following: bus – 11 rubles, tram and trolley – 10 rubles, mini-bus taxi – 14 rubles (after August 28, 2010).


·         the Rostov Regional Museum of Fine Arts

·         Academic Drama Theater named after Maxim Gorky

·         Mansion of Paramonov

·         Tsimlyanski natural sanctuary

·         Park named after Maxim Gorky

·         Park named after Nikolay Ostrovsky

·         City embankment

·         Church Surb-Hach

·         Rostov state circus

·         Voroshilov Bridge

·         Monument to Semyon Budenny

·         Railway bridge over the Don River

·         Monument to Alexander Pushkin

·         Monument to Maxim Gorky

·         Monument to Dmitry Rostovsky

·         Fountain on Teatralny Square

·         Works for watch production

Notable people of the city

  • Irina Allegrova (born in 1952), Soviet and Russian pop singer, actress. People's Artiste of Russia (2010)
  • Mikhail Sholokhov (1905-1984) – Russian Soviet writer and public figure. Nobel Prize winner in literature (1965 – “for artistical power and wholeness of epos about Don cossacks in critical period of Russia
  • Natalia Sukhanova (born in 1931) – Russian writer, novelist
  • Alexander Kaidanovsky (1946–1995) – Soviet and Russian actor, producer, script writer
  • Sergey Zhigunov (born in 1963) – Soviet and Russian actorб producer, president of Screen Actors Guild, Honored Artist of Russia