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Pskov

Pskov Chromemonument to Princess Olga in PskovSword of Alexander Nevsky in additionCathedral of Yoanna Predtechy XII century

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Pskov Region

Federal District: The North-Western Federal District

Area: 95,6 km2
Population: 191 760 persons.


Description

Pskov is a city in the northwest of Russia, the administrative center of the Pskov region. It’s one of the most ancient cities in Russia.

The population is 191,760 inhabitants (2010). It’s located on the River Velikaya (flows into Lake Pskov) at its confluence with the river of Pskov. One of the oldest cities in Russia (first mentioned in chronicles in 903.)

The city's area is 95.6 km².

The year of foundation is 903.

History

Pskov is one of the oldest cities in Russia. In the "Tale of Bygone Years", it is first mentioned under the year 903. Archaeological data increase the age up to 2,000 years or more.

Archeologists have found that in Pskov, in the X-XI centuries living descendants of the Slavs - Pskov Krivichy, representatives of Baltic and Finnish, Baltic and Scandinavian tribes. The kind of place Varangian Kiev and Olga, in baptism - Elena. Nation-building, and zeal for the Orthodox faith, Olga earned a special honor. The author of "The Tale of Bygone Years" was first reported in the context of Pskov, her biography, talking about bringing his wife Olga Prince Igor "from Pskov." It was during the reign of Pskov by Olga the fortified settlements turned into an administrative, trade and craft center. Princess Olga the Pskovians consider to be their patron.

Since the end of the IX and XII century to the Pskov, Novgorod as part of the land was part of Kievan Rus. In the XII century is part of the Pskov, Novgorod land. In the second half of the XIII century, the time of the reign of the city Dovmont in baptism Timothy (1266-1299), Pskov actually becomes independent from Great Novgorod. Cross-border provision of Pskov contributed to the growth of foreign trade. Pskov has successfully traded with Narva, Riga, Dorpat, Polotsk, and later - with the cities of the Hanseatic League.

In 1348, Pskov and Novgorod Bolotovsky signed an agreement under which got independence Pskov, Pskov became the center of the country. External and internal political life of Pskov Veche determined. Prince played the role of judge and military leader. In 1397 the Pskov Chamber approved the charter boat. By the beginning of the XVI century, Pskov, in fact, lost its independence.

1510 saw the removal of assembly bell, the oath of allegiance to Vasily III. The whole history of medieval Pskov is a history of incessant war, hostile raids, sieges and military campaigns. As an outpost of Russia in the north-west, Pskov virtually alone opposed the warlike neighbors, the land west of Pskov propped Livonian Order, from the south - hostile Lithuania. The main threat for several centuries came from the Livonian Order. Pages Pskov chronicles kept countless evidence of persistent cross-border conflict, of military glory and valor of Pskov.

In 1242, Alexander Nevsky, together with his troops won a brilliant victory over the German knights of the April ice of Lake Chud, thereby eliminating a direct threat to the capture of the Russian lands.

In 1581 the Polish King Stefan Batory of elite army of one hundred thousandth went to Pskov. Defenders of the city was half that of the enemy. Thirty-one assault was repulsed, and forty attacks made Pskov. Hopes for the capture of Pskov was no more, and on February 6, 1582 Batory troops retreated. Even 33 years later Pskov alone, devoid of any help, again confronts an army, this time the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus. And again scored a victory over one of the best armies in Western Europe! Pskov has played an important role in the military history of Russia in the early XVIII century, during the Northern War. At the time the city became the center of the current location of the Russian army.

During the First World War in Pskov is headquarters of the Northern Front, which took place at Riga. The city receives thousands of refugees and evacuees from the Baltic companies.

On March 2, 1917 the last Russian Emperor Nicholas II in the royal train, delayed at the station, Pskov, has signed an abdication from the throne. On the day of the 85th anniversary of the death of the last Russian emperor, in 2003 on the forecourt of Pskov opened a chapel, perpetuated the memory of Nicholas II. On February 23, 1918 in the vicinity of Pskov was first baptism of fire of the Red Army. Currently, this date is celebrated in Russia as the Day of Defender of the Fatherland.

During the Second World War the city was badly damaged. Pskov was occupied by the German army July 9, 1941. At the time of the capture of the city of Pskov remained 10-12 thousand civilians. Killed over 3500 innocent civilians only, there were organized a camp for Soviet prisoners of war. During the occupation by German troops during World War II in Pskov, destroyed 94% of the housing stock. According to the regional commission to investigate atrocities in the region, in the camps only to the city of Pskov killed more than 200,000 prisoners of war. July 23, 1944 the city of Pskov was released. After the German occupation and active warfare Pskov was almost completely destroyed.

In 1945 the government decided Pskov was included among the 15 oldest cities, to be top-priority restoration. He was a master plan for reconstruction and development of the city per 100 thousand population, transforming it into the administrative and industrial center and a museum city. The new plan was carried out taking into account the worked out by the outstanding architect, artist and expert restorer of ancient Pskov P. Spegalskim concept. It was important that in the Pskov restored temples were not on the outskirts of neighborhoods, architectural environment of the monument to stress the uniqueness of its originally perceived, and laid down the scale.

In December 2009, Pskov was awarded the title "City of Military Glory."

Location

Situated on the River Great (flows into Lake Pskov) at the confluence of the River of Pskov.

Industry

The main industries of Pskov are engineering, instrument engineering, metal processing, ferrous and non-ferrous metals.Transport

At the present time in the Pskov oblast there  is an international port "Storozhinets." On the River Velikaya runs the boat "Alexander Nevsky".

In the city the station there is October railway: Pskov-passenger, Pskov - freight, Pskov-II, Pskov Tourism, Cherekha, Berezky, Lyubyatovo, Polkovaya.

In the late XIX - early XX century, Pskov became a major railway junction, which consists of the following roads:

• St. Petersburg-Warsaw  etc.

• Pskov-Riga railway with a branch in Dorpat (Tartu)

• Bologoye -Pskov. etc.

• Pskov - Gdov - Narva. (1915-1916 gg.). It was destroyed during the Great Patriotic War. The part Pskov - Gdov wasn’t restored

In Pskov there is an international airport "Kresty." On December 9, 2010 resumed scheduled passenger air transportation between Pskov and Moscow.

Famous people of the city

Princess Olga, in baptism - the princess, rule of Kievan Rus after the death of her husband,

  Yury Tynyanov (1894-1943) - Russian Soviet writer, playwright, literary critic

Benjamin Kaverin (1902-1989) - Russian Soviet writer

Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881) - Russian composer, member of the "Mighty Handful"

Constantine Rokossovsky (1894-1968) - an outstanding Soviet commander, Marshal of the Soviet Union (1944), Marshal of Poland ( November 5, 1949)

 Sasha Cherny (real name Alexander Mikhailovich Glikberg (1880-1932) - Russian Silver Age poet, novelist, widely known as the author of popular lyrical and satirical poems humorous anecdotes

Attractions

1.Mirozhsky Monastery

2.Pskovsky Kremlin

3.Dovmontov city

4.Pogankiny House

5.Pamyatnik Princess Olga

6.Snetogorsky Monastery

7.Troitsky Cathedral Pskov

Phones for communication in emergencies

Help Desk telephone network - 09

Information Service - (8112) 053

Fire - (8112) 01

Police - (8112) 02

Ambulance - (8112) 03

MOE - (8112) 051

Sources of information on tourism opportunities in the region

• Tourist Information Centre

Pskov Address: pl. Lenina 3

Tel.: (953) 242-5700, (8112) 72-2532

e-mail: infopunktpskov@ya.ru

• Information Center

The Kremlin, 4, Prikaznaya Chamber, 1st floor.

Tel.: (8112) 72-4574

e-mail: museum-60@mail.ru

www.museums.pskov.ru

time: 10:00-18:00, seven days a week.