The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Privolzhsky Federal District
Area: 304,7 km2
Population: 506 300 persons.
Subject of the Russian Federation: Penza oblast
Federal district: Volga Federal Okrug
Total area: 304,7 км2
Population: 506, 300
Penza — is a city in Russia, an administrative center of the Penza oblast.
The city's population — 506, 300 (Census 2010).
The city's area is 304,7 km².
Year of foundation: 1663.
The city is divided into four city districts — Zheleznodorozhny, Leninsky, Oktyabrsky and Pervomaisky.
Penza was founded in 1663 as a fortress. It was a fortress in the south-eastern part of Moscow state, built by the order of Tsar Alexey Mihailovich.
In the first third of the XVIII century Penza became the inner city in Russia, and lost its former strategic importance. In the second half of XVIII century Penza Krai is one of the main districts of the country's landed estates. By this time, Penza – is a major economic center, the well-being is based on a commodity agricultural production (mainly the export of grain) and distillation.
During the XVIII century is gradually increased, and the administrative status of the city. Since 1719 Penza - Penza province center of Kazan province. In 1780 the town became the center of Penza governorship, which subordinate to the Governor-General of Kazan.
In 1781 Penza and guberniya received the highest approved coat of arms - three sheaves in the green field: wheat, barley and millet - "it means rich and noble of the local farming land."
September 9, 1801 by decree of the Senate Penza city was declared a chief town of the guberniya, and at the same time it was a center of Penza County.
Penza was at the crossroads of important trade routes, and by the end of XIX century has received the output in all directions: On October 11, 1874 traffic in Morshansk – Syzran stretch began. This has created favorable conditions for economic and cultural development.
In the XIX - early XX century the leading role of Penza economy belongs to trade in bread and alcohol, and food, especially flour, cereals and drinks.
From the middle of the XIX century new production have emerged in the city. The largest of these in pre-revolutionary Penza was a paper mill, established in 1850 by one of the richest merchants of the guberniya corn chandler P.V. Sergeyev (now Mayak factory (Lighthouse)).
The Penza oblast was established on February 4, 1939. By the time the city population was 160, 000. Simultaneously, Penza Railway was founded, which became later a part of Kuibyshev.
Present Penza – is a major center of Russia with a well-developed infrastructure and rich cultural traditions.
The city is located on Privolzhskaya hill, on the river Sura (falls into Volga river). The distance from Moscow city is 709 km (by train), 629 km (by car - highway M5 Moscow - Chelyabinsk) to the south-east of Moscow.
Penza is a large railway junction. With the south the city is connected with South-Eastern railway; with the north, west and east - with Kuybyshev railway. Passenger long distance trains depart from station Penza I, suburban trains - from stations Penza-1 and Penza-3.
The federal highway M5 “Ural” (Moscow - Chelyabinsk) crosses Penza city. In the city the highway P209 Penza - Tambov starts, some km far from the city - the highway Saratov - Nizhny Novgorod.
Bus terminal in Penza is the largest in the oblast connecting Penza with district centers and neighboring oblasts centers.
In the southern outskirt of Penza (Ternovka district) there is an airport (2 flights to Moscow every day), and also there are 2 flights a week to Saint-Petersburg.
Penza city transportation consists of trolley-buses, buses and minivans. Also, during navigating across the Sura River a waterbus is on the route pier “Rostok” - hithe "Barkovka", more used in a more walking goals.
- Vyazemsky Peter (1792-1878) - poet and critic
- Krylov Ivan (1769-1844) - poet and fabulist
- Davydov Denis - poet
- Belinsky Vissarion (1811-1848) - outstanding literary, theater critic and journalist
- Lermontov Mikhail (1814-1841) - poet and writer
- Saltykov-Shchedrin Mikhail (1826-1889) - writer and satirist
- Leskov Nikolai (1831-1895) - writer
- Kuprin Alexander (1870-1938) - writer
- Meyerkhold Vsevolod (1874-1940) - actor and director, People's Artist
- Archangelsky Alexander (1846-1924) - composer and choral conductor
- Klyuchevsky Basily(1841-1911) - historian, teacher
- Penza Oblast Drama Theatre named after A.V. Lunacharsky
- Penza Oblast Puppet Theatre "A Doll's House"
- Penza Oblast Young Theater
- House of Meyerkhold
- Museum of Folk Art in Penza
- Penza State United Museum of Local Lore (founded in 1905)
- Association of State Literary and Memorial Museum of the Penza oblast (founded in 1975)
- Center Theatre Art "House of Meyerkhold" (founded in 1984)
- Penza Museum of Folk Art (founded in 1975)
- Picture Gallery, Penza them. Savitsky (founded in 1892)
- Penza museum of a picture named after G. V. Myasnikov (founded in 1983)
- Museum of V.O. Klyuchevsky (founded in 1991)
- House-Museum named after N.N. Burdenko
- Museum of I.N. Ulyanov
- Museum of Postal Service
- Museum of the City of Penza
- Museum of literature
- Monument "Pervoposelenets" (First settler)
- Monument to the military and the labor Glory (Victory Monument)
- Monument "Farewell"
- Monument to Penza police officers
- Monument to V.G. Belinsky • Monument to Yu.I. Moiseev
- Monument to V.O.Kluchevsky
- Monument to soldiers – citizens of Penza, who died in local wars
- Monument to participants of liquidation of the Chernobyl APS accident