The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Privolzhsky Federal District
Area: 300 km2
Population: 525 600 persons.
Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal district: Volga Federal district
Total area: 300 km2
Population: 525, 600
Orenburg — is a city in Russia, an administrative center of the Orenburg region. Population: 525, 600 (Census 2010). Year of foundation: 1743. The city's area is 300 km². The city of Orenburg is divided on 2 administrative districs: North and South. The North district includes 4 rural settlements – Kargala and Samorodovo settlements, Krasnokholm and Prudy villages.
Orenburg was founded on April 19 (30), 1743. It was based on three times in three different places. The first fort was mortgaged on August 31, 1735 on the place of present Orsk. By fairly widespread, but mistaken version the city name comes from the German language, given its distribution during the government of Anna Ioannovna. Orenburg is from German: Ohren — ears and Burg — a fortress, so that shows the original purpose of the fortress — "listen" to what is happening in Asia (local historian V. V. Dorofeev).
In fact, as originally Orenburg was founded on the river Or, it got its name "Orenburg", in the other words the city on the Or. Original location for the city at the confluence of the Or and Yaik was chosen during the expedition of initiator of krai development I.K. Kirillov. After the death of I.K. Kirillov the head of the Orenburg expedition was appointed V.N.Tatishchev. It seemed to him that the place is very uncomfortable, besides, it flooded spring floods. In 1739, preparations began for the construction of downstream Yaik at a place called Red Hill, and on Aug. 6, 1741, it was mortgaged. However, the construction of the city didn’t begin. New chief of the commission was appointed I. Neplyuev, who that summer in 1742 chose a new place, now it is the historical center of the city. Orenburg was moved to its present position in 1743. In connection with the history of foundation of Orenburg called "triple conceived and once born".
But on August 26, 1920 the Central Executive Committee and CPC of the RSFSR accepted the decree, which was signed by Mikhail Kalinin and V.I. Lenin, "On the formation of the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic" on the same territories as part of the RSFSR with its capital in Orenburg. First (Organizational) Congress of Soviets of Kazakhstan took place in Orenburg on October 4-12, 1920. Nevertheless the city was the Kazakh capital for a short while and in 1925 the capital of Kazakhstan was moved far to the south in the city Perovsk (the former Ak-Mosque) on the Syr-Darya River, on this occasion renamed into Kyzyl-Orda (kaz. Қyzylorda, Rus. Red Capital), and Orenburg with Orenburg oblast was incorporated into the RSFSR. In December 1934, it became the center of the Orenburg oblast.
The city is located on the Ural River (Yaik), near mouth of the river Sakmara, 1468 km from Moscow.
In industry of Orenburg leading positions belong to natural gas and gas processing industries, mechanical engineering and metalworking. Also the chemical industry, food processing and light industries developed.
Orenburg gas-processing plant
Orenburg helium plant
Orenburg locomotive repair plant
Plant of polymer tubes of low pressure
Plant of dry building mixes
OAO PO Strela,
Factory ОАО Orenshal — manufacturer of Orenburg downy kerchief, shawls and others
- ОАО Orenburgenergo
- ОАО Invertor
- ОАО Gidropress South - Ural industrial company
- Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System
- ОАО UES FGC
- ОАО Neftemaslozavod (Petrol and oil plant)
- ООО Orenburg Vodokanal (water canal)
Orenburg – is a major railway junction, where the lines cross, going to Samara, Orsk, Uralsk, Aqtobe. Trains are going to Moscow, Bishkek, Orsk, Tashkent, Chelyabinsk, Adler, Astana, Kiev, Ekaterinburg, Ufa, Samara.
Local trains are going to Novosergievsky, Akbulak, Kuvandyk, Saraktash, Sakmarsky.
In the floodplain of the river Ural Orenburg children's railway is effective from 1953.
In Orenburg, there are two airport: the military airfield Orenburg-South, and the civilian airport "Central". Flights to Hannover, Dushanbe, Dusseldorf, Yerevan, Magnitogorsk, Moscow (Domodedovo), St. Petersburg, Khujand, Hurghada, Sharm el-Sheikh. There are 24 bus and 6 trolleybus routes.
There are about 70 commercial routes.
There is a cable way across the river Ural.
- Gagarin Yuri (1934-1968) - first cosmonaut, Hero of the Soviet Union, the colonel, graduated from flight school in Orenburg
- Berg Aksel (1893-1979) - Soviet admiral, academician, founder of the national radar
- Kuznetsov Sergey (b. 1964) - Russian composer, poet, author of a large number of songs, many of whom have received worldwide fame
- Rostropovich Mstislav (1927-2007) - famous Russian musician, conductor, People's Artist of USSR (1966), whose family in 1941, was evacuated to the city of Chkalov (Orenburg)
- Semenov Grigory Mikhailovich (1890-1946) - Cossack chieftain, leader of the White movement in Transbaikal and the Far East
- Orenburg Regional History Museum
- Memorial-museum "Salute, victory!"
- Orenburg Museum of Fine Arts
- Museum of the History of Orenburg
- Memorial museum- guardhouse of Taras Shevchenko
- Memorial museum-apartment of Yuri and Valentina Gagarin
- Memorial museum-Apartment of Leopold and Mstislav Rostropovich, Museum "House of Memory"
- Space Museum (in building MEI “Comprehensive boarding-school with basic flying training ” – Cadet corps named after I.I. Neplyueva)
- Regional Museum of Police History in Orenburg oblast
- Museum of military glory and the Afghan War
- Museum of the company's history Orenburggazprom
- The oldest theater of the city – Orenburg Regional drama theater named after M. Gorky
- Central Exhibition Hall of Artists Union of Russia.