The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Siberian Federal District
Area: 506,7 km2
Population: 1 409 137 persons.
Novosibirsk — a city in Russia, an administrative center of the Novosibirsk region.
It was founded in 1893.
Population is 1,409,137 people (2010).
The city's area is 506.7 km².
Novosibirsk is divided into 10 administrative districts:
The first Russian settlements on the territory of modern Novosibirsk appeared in the last decade of the XVII century — the beginning of Peter's reign. This village, named Krivoschekovskaya (under the name of the serviceman Feodor Krenitsyn, who was called Krivoshchekov for the saber scar on his face), at least until 1712, served as a trade center between the Russians and the Teleuts, who were masters of the land on the other side of the Ob River.
This fact has determined the nature of settling of the territory of future Novosibirsk: right bank of the Ob was not popular among the Russian colonists, as there continued to be a fortress of one of the obeyed tribes after the Teleuts departure. Apparently, the representatives of this tribe (the Russians call them the “Chats”) were not friendly, so pioneers of the Russian colonization preferred to settle on the left bank, where a conglomerate of two dozen close to each other towns and villages was formed. Anyway, by the end of the XVIII century, the territory of the Left Bank Side of Novosibirsk had been fully populated.
On the 28th of April, 1982 the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR was issued that Novosibirsk awarded the Order of Lenin for great merits of city workers in the revolutionary movement, their contribution to the fight against the Nazis during World War II and the progress, reached in economic and cultural development.
In February, 1990 Novosibirsk was given the status of the historic city as a center of science and culture of Siberia, and in 2000 the Siberian Federal District was formed by the Decree of the President Vladimir Putin, Novosibirsk was appointed as its center.
Nowadays Novosibirsk is at the 3rd place, according to the population size, and at the 30th place among cities of Russia, according to the square. It has the status of a urban district, an administrative center of the Novosibirsk Oblast and the Siberian Federal District, a scientific, cultural, industrial, transport, trade and business center of Siberia.
Novosibirsk is located in the south-eastern part of the West Siberian Plain in the Ob plateau, adjacent to the valley of the Ob River, near the reservoir, formed by the dam of the Novosibirsk Hydroelectric Power Station, at the intersection of forest and steppe zones. The left bank of the city has a flat relief. The right bank is characterized by a set of beams, ridges and ravines, because the transition to the mountain relief of the Salairskiy ridge begins there. The Zaeltsovskiy and the Kudryashovsky pine forests and the Novosibirsk reservoir adjoin the city.
Novosibirsk is the largest industrial center. The industrial complex includes 214 large and medium industrial enterprises. The leading industries are energy, gas, water, metallurgy, metalworking, mechanical engineering.
There are headquarters of several major Russian companies in the city.
Novosibirsk is the largest transportation hub in Siberia.
The railway station "Novosibirsk-Main"- one of the largest in the country and is an architectural attraction of the city.
Automobile highways have 6 directions (in Omsk, Kolyvan, Jurga, Leninsk-Kuznetsk, Barnaul and Kamen on the Ob).
There is a bus station in the center of the city, at the beginning of the Red Avenue.
There are two airports: Tolmachevo, Northern (City) and the airfield Eltsovka on the territory of Chkalov NAPO. The Tolmachevo Airport has international status.
The city has 10 tram and 14 trolleybus routes.
- Novosibirsk State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre (opened May 12, 1945) — the largest theater building in Russia;
- Rrailway station «Novosibirsk-Main» (put into operation in 1939);
- Alexander Nevsky Cathedral — the first stone building in the city, sanctified after only 6 years after the settlement’s appearance;
- Novosibirsk Regional Historical Museum;
- 100-flat House — a residential building, designed by the famous architect A.D. Kryachkov;
- Lenin House (now the Novosibirsk Philharmonic Society) — built in memory of the leaders of the October Revolution of 1917 during less than 6 months. For this project cards with the image of the original version of the building were issued that people called «bricks» (the cost of one postcard is 10 cents — the cost of one brick at that time). Postcards were bought by people during the shortest time;
- Building of the commercial assembly (rebuilt in the theater «Red Torch») — an architectural monument, originally built in 1914 by the design of A.D. Kryachkov;
- N.A. Lunin Locomotive Memorial FD21-3000, set up in memory of the innovator of rail transport;
- Novosibirsk Zoo that has a collection of more than 600 species of animals;
- Central Siberian Botanical Garden — the largest in the Asian part of Russia (an area of over 1000 hectares);
- Museum of the Sun — the Russia's only museum, dedicated to the signs and symbols of the Sun.
Famous people of the city
- Leonid Kantorovich (1912-1986) – a scientist, a mathematician, an author of the linear programming method (Nobel Prize 1975)
- Yuri Kondratyuk (real name - Shargey, Alexander Ignatievich) (1897-1942) – an engineer, one of the founders of the world’s astronautics and rocket production
- Yuri Magalif (1918-2001) - a children's writer, a poet and a playwright.
- Nikolai Nikitin (1907-1973) – a scientist and an engineer, an author of the Ostankino Tower, a participant of projects of Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw.