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Nizhny Novgorod

Nizhni NovgorodNizhni NovgorodNizhni NovgorodNizhni Novgorod

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Nizhny Novgorod Region

Federal District: The Privolzhsky Federal District

Area: 411 km2
Population: 1 278 803 persons.


Description

The subject of the Russian Federation: Nizhny Novgorod region

Federal district: Volga Federal District

Area: 411 km2

Population: 1,278,803 people.

Description

Nizhny Novgorod is a city in Russia, an administrative center of Nizhny Novgorod region. The year of foundation: 1221

The population is about 1.3 million people.

The area of the city is 411 km ²

History

Starting from the IXth century a gradual peaceful colonialist movement of the Slavs took place downstream the upper Volga to the lands inhabited by Finno-Ugric peoples. By the end of the XIth century the entire upper Volga up to the mouth of the Oka belonged to Russia. Just below started the limits of the Volga Bulgar, while the right bank of the Volga, up to the mouth of the Sura was settled by Erzyan. Meanwhile the "last" Slavic city on the Volga was Gorodets till 1221. In 1221 Duke George Vsevolodovich founded a stronghold at the confluence of two great rivers: Volga and Oka in order to defend the borders of the principality Vladimir from Mordovians, Mari and Volga Bulgars which was called Novgorod Nizovskiy land (the Novgorod people called principality Vladimir as Nizovskiy land). Later this name was transformed into Nizhny Novgorod, and in the imperial title remained until 1917.

During the period of feudal fragmentation Nizhny Novgorod was alternately a principality of Suzdal and Vladimir principalities.

In 1350 the city became the capital of an independent Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal Grand Principality, which occupied a vast territory, and competed with Moscow. During this period, Nizhny Novgorod Lands were actively populated.

In 1990 the city was named Nizhny Novgorod again.

From 2000 with the foundation of the Volga Federal District the city became its administrative center. In early 2008, the government of the city approved a new master plan of development. The project plan of the center of Nizhny Novgorod was developed by the Research and Design Institute of the General Plan of Moscow. The new concept of the development implies a transfer of business activity from the busy historic center to the part of the city over the river.

Today, Nizhny Novgorod is well-known as a major center for shipbuilding, aircraft building, motor industry and information technologies. In the city line mud-bath health resort is situated – Zeleniy Gorod (Green City). Currently it’s the largest center of the river cruise tourism in Russia.

Industry

Nizhny Novgorod is one of the largest industrial centers in Russia, the leading role belongs to the mechanical engineering, metal processing and information technology.

The bulk of the industrial production comes from motor industry, shipbuilding and arms production. The largest factories of this sphere are: Shipyard "Krasnoe Sormovo" (Red Sormovo), Aircraft Building factory "Sokol" (Falcon), Nizhny Novgorod’s Machine Building factory, factories of aircraft equipment " Gidromash " (Hydromash) and "Teploobmennik" (Heat Exchanger), a factory "Krasnaya Etna" (Red Etna), diesel engine factory "RUMO", "Krasniy Yakor" (Red Anchor), "Termal", a factory "NITEL", the factory of communication equipment in the name of A.S. Popov, NPO "Salut" (Salute) and the Nizhny Novgorod factory in the name of G.I. Petrovsky.

Heavy industry of the city is represented by Gorky Metallurgical factory. The construction industry is provided by the local building materials.

Light and food processing industries are represented by knitted and leather and footwearfactories, sewing enterprises, meat processing and packing factories, sausage factories, dairies. Operates a number of the woodworking and printing sectors. A number of woodworking and polygraphic branches are run.

Transport

Currently, Nizhny Novgorod is a major traffic centre.

Since July 30, 2010 high-speed trains “Sapsan” began to run on the route Nizhny Novgorod - Moscow - St. Petersburg.

Through the town highway of federal: M7, R158, and regional significance: R125, R152 and R159 are run.

Urban transport is represented by municipal buses (60 routes), by minibuses (65 routes), trams (18 routes), trolleybuses (19 routes) and subway (2 lines). Fares for using public transport are 14 rubles for buses, 12 rubles for trams, trolleys and subway and 12-14 rubles for minibuses.

Electric trains and less often Children's Railway can be used as an intraurban transport.

For reducing the route its length was 9.1 km and it was the longest one in the USSR.

Sights

  • Museum of Applied Arts of Nizhny Novgorod Region
  • Monument to the Hero of the Soviet Union V.P. Chkalov
  • State Literary Memorial Museum named after N.A. Dobrolubova
  • Literary Museum of A. M. Gorky (main building of the State Museum named after A.M. Gorky)
  • Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin - a branch of the Nizhny Novgorod State Historical-Architectural culture preserve
  • «Kerzhensky" State Nature Reserve
  • Tihvinskaya Church
  • Alexander Nevsky Cathedral
  • Uspenskaya Church
  • Spas Vsemilostiviy Church (All-Merciful Saviour Church)
  • Church of Our Lady, The Joy of All Who Sorrow

Phones to contact in emergencies:

United Emergency (including fire department) - 01

The Police - 02

Ambulance - 03

The Office of Civil Defense and Emergencies of Nizhny Novgorod:

tel.: (831) 433-6614 (round the clock)

Nizhny Novgorod Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics - st. Minin, 32.

tel.: (831) 436-3423

pharmacy on duty - st. Boris Pokrovsky, 15a.

tel.: (831) 419-7542

The sources of receiving information about tourism opportunities in the region

The Ministry of support and development of small entrepreneurial activity, consumer market and services of Nizhny Novgorod Region, the Department of Tourism and National Artistic Trades. tel.: (831) 434-1178, 430-6857

www.tourismnn.ru

e-mail: tourism@mpred.kreml.nnov.ru