The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Central Federal District
Area: 125,5 km2
Population: 327 000 persons.
Kaluga is a city in the central Russia, the administrative center (1944) of the Kaluzhskaya oblast
The year of foundation is: 1371.
The population is 327,650 people.
The area of the city is 125.5 km².
The ongoing excavations and historical research from various sources date the formation of settlements in the place of the current Kaluga, about 7 to 5 000 years BC, though no exact confirmation of the constancy of these settlements. Kaluga is first mentioned in 1371 in the charter of Lithuanian prince Olgerda, who complained to the Patriarch of Constantinople Filofei that the Moscow Prince Dmitry took away a number of cities, including Kaluga.
In 1389 mention in a spiritual letter-testament of Dmitry Donskoy permanently affixed as part of Moscow principality. In 1723 and 1737, respectively Kaluga depopulated due to hunger. Almost the city was burned down in 1742, 1754, 1756, 1760 and 1761, respectively.
In 1771, Kaluga was overtaken by the plague, in getting rid of that — every year — September 2, was arranged the procession with the miraculous icon of Our Lady of Kaluga. From October 13 to December 30, 1941 the German occupation lasted in Kaluga. When they came in Kaluga, the Germans met patchy resistance, distinguished themselves technical parts of the Red Army, NKVD and KGB officers of the regional jail, but the enemy could not be detained. During the retreat of the Red Army had not been blown up urban infrastructure (the Germans managed to put power within a day after the occupation). During the retreat of the Germans were destroyed 196 homes, leaving over 850 homeless families. Fighters of the 50 th Army, along with the rest of the Red Army, exactly from Kaluga began their winning pace, begin to count the liberated from the Nazis Soviet cities.
The city is situated on the banks of the Oka River near Yachenki in 190 km to the southwest of Moscow. Railway station in the line Moscow— Kiev.
During Soviet times, up to 90% of industrial enterprises of Kaluga worked for the defense industry, supplying high-tech equipment and products for armored forces, air defense, Army Space and Naval Forces of the USSR. Now in the city operate such companies as Kaluga Plant of Transport Engineering, Kaluga factory "Remputmash" Kaluga factory automotive electrical, Kaluga Electromechanical Plant, Kaluga plant of telegraph apparatus, Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Kalugapribor" Kaluga Turbine Works, radio valve Kaluga plant and others.
The structure of the total gross industrial output of Kaluga for 46 % is engineering products, 35 % is the food industry, 13 % - energy production, 1.5 % - light industry. Sales of own-produced goods, works and services (for large and medium-sized enterprises of Kaluga) for 2009 amounted to 70.43 billion rubles.
Through the city runs the railway line Vyazma-Ryazhsk (station Kaluga-1), Moscow—Kiev highway passes through a remote area of the city (Kaluga-2). Station Kaluga-1 exclusively suburban — by train to Moscow (including express) and Sukhinichi, DMUs to Vyazma and Alexina, diesel express train up to Tula and Uzlovaya.
Long-distance trains stops at the station Kaluga-2.
In addition, with the capital of Russia and some other cities Kaluga is connected by bus (the bus station is combined with rail station Kaluga-1).
Kaluga is located near the federal highway MZ "Ukraine", which connects the city with Moscow, Bryansk, and — the largest cities of Kaluga region. The main inner-city transport is trolleybus and buses (68 routes) and minivans.
• Kaluga Regional Museum
• National Museum of the History of Cosmonautics of Tsiolkovsky
• Museum of Tsiolkovsky
• Museum of crafts, architecture and life
• Kaluga Regional Art Museum
• Museum of A.L. Chizhevsky
• Regional Art Gallery "Obraz"
• Municipal Cultural Institution "House Masters"
• St George's Cathedral
• The temple in honor of St. Nicholas on Kozinka
• House of Obolensky
Famous people of the city
- Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857—1935) — scientist, the founder of modern astronautics (he lived and worked in Kaluga, from 1892 to 1935)
- Nikolai Sokolov (1886—1942) — Soviet military commander
- Mnishek, Marina — wife of False Dmitry I, crowned as the Russian empress False Dmitry II — an imposter pretending to be son of Ivan the Terrible, Tsarevich Dmitry