The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Privolzhsky Federal District
Area: 123 702 km2
Population: 2 112 910 persons.
Coat of arms of Orenburg Oblast
Flag of Orenburg Oblast
Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal district: Volga Federal distcrict
Total area: 123, 702 km2
Population: 2, 112, 910
Orenburg oblast — is the subject of the Russian Federation.
Administrative center – is the city of Orenburg.
Population: 2, 112, 910 (Census 2010).
Population density -17, 1 /km² (Census 2010), the proportion of urban population - 57, 4% (Census 2010).
Total area: 123, 700 km2
Founded on December 7, 1934. The Oblast shares its border with Chelyabinsk oblast in the northeast. Municipal units include 35 districts, 12 cities and a closed administrative-territorial entity settlement of urban type Komarovsky.
From the 30-ies of the XVIII century, after the decision of Kazakh tribes voluntarily joining to the Russian State, the territory of present Orenburg oblast has actively developed by settlers from the central provinces of Russia.
In 1743 the frontier of Orenburg was founded, which became the administrative center of Orenburg guberniya, established by personal decree of Empress Anna Ioanovna in 1744. The guberniya was known with statesmen and scholars of the era — V.N.Tatishchev, I.K. Kirilov, P.I. Rychkov and I.I. Neplyuev, who became the first governor of Orenburg. Guberniya is united with the territory of present Kazakhstan, Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, Chelyabinsk and Samara oblast. Its southern border passed along the shores of the Caspian and Aral seas.
On December 7, 1934 Bureau of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee adopted a decree on the formation of the Orenburg oblast. Then the same was approved by the organizing committee for the election of the Board of Deputies of the Orenburg oblast, whose chairman was appointed K.E. Vasiliev.
Geographical Position, Natural Resources, Climate:
The total area of Orenburg oblast is 123,700 km², the oblast ranks 32 in Russia. The oblast's territory covers the southeastern margin of the East European Plain, the southernmost point of the Urals and the southern Urals.
The length of the area from west to east is 755 km, from north to south — 425 km. Total border length is 3,700 km. The entire western border of the Orenburg oblast accounts for the Samara region.
The oblast shares its borders with Tatarstan in the northwest. The northern boundary of River Ik to the Ural River bends around Bashkortostan. In the northeast region borders the Chelyabinsk region. The rest of the border length of 1670 km, east and south borders accrue to three areas of Kazakhstan: Kustanay, Aqtobe and West Kazakhstan.
Existing boundaries are established on December 7, 1934. There is a reserve in the Orenburg region.
Climate of Orenburg is characterized by a continentality, which is explained by a considerable distance from the area of oceans and seas. Indicator of continental climate is a large amplitude average air temperature, which in the Orenburg region reaches 34—38 degrees Celsius. In connection with this insufficiency of rainfall, the annual amount of which varies from 450 mm in the northwest to 350 mm in the south and south-east region. About 60—70% of annual precipitation falls on the warm period.
Duration of occurrence of snow cover ranges from 135 days in the south up to 154 days in the north area. The depth of soil freezing varies from 70 cm to the north-west to 100 cm in the east.
Half of the region occupied by arable land, 38% — forage lands, 5% — forests, 7% — other lands. In the Orenburg region are landscapes of the forest-steppe zone of Russia, the Trans-Volga steppes, and Turgay, forested lowlands of the Southern Urals, pine and birch forest steppe of Western Siberia.
The industry employs 25% of the economically active population and produced 55% of the gross regional product. The fuel industry is the leading industry of Orenburg region. About 60% of oil extracted in Kurmanaevskom, Pervomaisky, Sorochinsky districts.
Mechanical engineering is an important branch of industry of the oblast. Development of agricultural, transport machinery and machine tools. The main industry is a heavy industry. The share of engineering products in total industrial production is about 7,5%.
In the oblast there are more than 70 major machine-building enterprises, main among which are
- Orsk Machine Building Plant
- PO Strela
- Orenburg Radiator
- OAO Buguruslan Factory Radiator
Therefore, the Orenburg region belongs to the zone of intensive agricultural development — 88% of its area is occupied by agricultural land, while in Russia — only 13%.
The transport potential of area includes the enterprises of railway, automobile, air and pipeline transport.
In area the route network is constructed, allowing to provide passenger bus transportations in oblast, more than 470 suburban, long-distance and more than 200 city and settlement routes is opened. The road passenger transport is a branch which makes significant influence on social sphere. On a share of road freight transport is about 3/4 freights transported by all types of transport. The tendency of allocation from structure of large and average transport agencies of small enterprises and sole proprietor proceeds. As a whole only 12 % of the organizations have 25 and more cars. On a commercial basis are carried out about 21 % of freight traffic, other share is necessary on transportation of freights for own needs. Amortization of lorries as a whole exceeds 60 %.
On the territory of the Orenburg region are successfully operating two branches of OAO Russian Railways: Orenburg branch of the South-Ural Railway and the Samara branch of the Kuibyshev Railway. The route miles of South-Ural Railway is 1643.3 km, including electrified lines - 511.7 km and route miles of Kuibyshev railway - 115 km. Orenburg Branch is leading the South-Ural Railway, and ranks third in volume of traffic on the PFD. The department is constantly working on development, modernization and equipping of technical means of rail transport.
Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Orenburg airlines" are among the leading regular airline in Russia. The airline is based on two international airports in Orenburg and Orsk, it has a air park of all classes. The flight geography of "Orenburg airlines" includes Europe and Asia. It provides air transportation of passengers, baggage and freights on international and domestic airlines, including charter flights, on its own aircraft, service industries, including the implementation of aviation-chemical works, search and rescue mission assurance. From March 1995 Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Orenburg Airlines" has the status of an independent international airlines. At the enterprise balance there are more than 70 aircraft of various classes of domestic and foreign production.
Airport of Orenburg is the official reserve airfield and it used by aircraft of the Emergencies Ministry, Customs and Border Protection, the Ministry of Defense of Russia during the organization of flights at the intergovernmental level. In addition, the area the government program of the Ministry of Defence of Russia and the international space company "Kosmotras" on the commercial launch of the spacecraft.
In its implementation of the important role the international airport "Orsk" to receive aircraft, delivering equipment from abroad, experts from the countries - participants of the project and the UNO observers.
- Rock Verblyud
- Granite massif Shonkal
- Cliff Semitsvetka in Adamovsky
- Aydyrlinsky granite cliff in Kvarkenskom
- Mountain Boevaya with karst lakes in the Sol-Iletsk
- Treasure Coast (bereg sokrovishch) on the shores of the Urals in Perevolotsky
- Red Rocks - outputs of red sandstone in the area Sorochinsko
- Karst lake Kopa in Adamovsky, Gaynullinskoe in Gaiskom
- Karagaiskiy pine wood on the Guberle River in Kuvandykskom, Kumakskie wood in Yasnenskom
- Mountain Bear Forehead(Medvezhiy Lob) in Perevolotsky
- Plantations of A. Karamzin in Buguruslan district
- Parkland on the old homestead in the villages Tashle and Kozlovka of Tyulganskogo district
- Sergei Aksakov (1791-1859) - writer
- Khalil Abzhalilov (1896-1963) - Tatar theater and cinema actor, People's Artist of USSR (1957)
- Musa Jalil (1906-1944) - Tatar Soviet poet, Hero of the Soviet Union (1956)
- Viktor Chernomyrdin (1938-2010) - Russian Prime Minister (1992-1998)