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Novosibirsk Oblast

Building of the Novosibirsk Opera and Ballet TheatreNovosibirsk regionMemorial squareKishtovsky district

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Novosibirsk Region

Federal District: The Siberian Federal District

Area: 177 756 km2
Population: 2 649 871 persons.

The emblem of Novosibirsk Oblast
The emblem of Novosibirsk Oblast

The flag of Novosibirsk region
The flag of Novosibirsk region



Description

Novosibirsk Oblast is the subject of the Russian Federation.

The administrative center is Novosibirsk.

It was founded on September 28, 1937.

The population of the Oblast is 2 649 871 people (2010).

The Oblast’s area is the sixth one of seven Oblasts of the Northwestern Federal District — 54 501 km ².

It borders Tomsk Oblast in the north, Kazakhstan in the south-west, Omsk Oblast in the west, Altai territory in the south, Kemerovo Oblast in the east.

Novosibirsk Oblast includes 14 cities (including 7 cities of oblast subordination), 30 administrative districts, 18 urban-type settlements, 428 rural administrations.

History

The indigenous people of Novosibirsk Oblast are the Baraba Tatars (there are about 10 thousand people now). Only at the end of  XVII century, Novosibirsk Oblast began to attract migrants. Circa 1644, Maslyanino village was formed on the river Berd. In 1695, the hunters lodge was founded by the boyar son Alexei Kruglik. Afterwards, it became Kruglikovo village, existing up to now in Bolotninsk district. Soon after that, new several villages – Pashkova, Krasulina, Gutova, Krivoschekovskaya and Morozova (near Berdsk) - emerged.

Until 1717, it was under the jurisdiction of Tomsk voivodeship, and then was passed at the disposal of the Kuznetsk administration. Berd burg was mainly filled by immigrants from Chaussy departments and Tarsk district villages. As far as minimizating of hazards of the nomads military raids, the number of immigrants increased, at that many migrants did not have official permission to change of domicile, and in a varying degree were subjected to persecution by the authorities. In 1722, the Siberian line of fortress was built along the River Irtysh. It consisted of Ust-Tartassk, Kainsk and Ubinsk fortifications. In the first half of  XVIII century the populating of the south-east part of Baraba and the north part of Kulunda. However, constructed farm yards and villages were very small and usually consisted of just a few households.

The main businesses of the population on the territory of current Novosibirsk Oblast were arable farming, fishing, hunting, and carting. At the end of XVII century on the Oblast territory the first burgs - Urtamsky and Umrevinsky – have emerged, near which the immigrants from European Russia began to settle. The first Russian villages were founded on the riversides of Oyash, Chaus, and Inya. Circa 1710, Krivoschekovsk village was founded.

At the beginning of XVIII century, the famous Ural industrialist Akinfiy Demidov built two copper-smelting plants - Kolyvan and Barnaul.

Other plants for smelting copper and silver have been constructed on the riversides of Casmala, Nizhny Suzun, Alley, Bolshaya Talmovaya. The largest plant- Suzunsk copper-smelting plant – was built in 1764-1765, and since 1766, Suzunsk Mint, minted copper coins impure of silver, began to operate. In 1893, in connection with the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway and the railway bridge across the River Ob, Alexandrovk rural settlement (since 1895  - Novonikolayevsk rural settlement) emerged.

Thanks to its convenient geographical location, which is due to the crossing of Trans-Siberian Railway, navigable river Ob and transport routes, connecting Siberia with the European part of Russian empire, its trade and economic importance has rapidly increased. In 1909, Novonikolayevsk was awarded the status of city, and in 1925, it was renamed as Novosibirsk.

Until 1921, Novosibirsk Oblast was a part of Tomsk governorate, from 1921 to 1925 — Novonikolayevsk governorate, from 1925 to 1930 - Siberian region, and from 1930 to 1937 - West Siberian region. On September 28, 1937, West Siberian region was divided in Novosibirsk Oblast and Altai territory by the Decree of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR. This date is considered as the official day of the foundation of the Oblast. At 1937, the Oblast consisted of 36 districts, including modern Tomsk and Kemerovo Oblasts. In 1943, Kemerovo Oblast, and in 1944, Tomsk Oblast have been separated from Novosibirsk Oblast.

Geographical location, natural resources, climate

The climate is continental, the average temperature in January is from -16 °C in the south, to -20 °C in north areas. The average temperature in July is +18…+20 °C. The average yearly temperature is - 0,2 °C. The absolute maximum is +37 °C, the absolute minimum is -51 °C. Novosibirsk Oblast is situated in the southeast of West Siberian Plain.

The extension of the Oblast from the west to the east is 642 km, from the north to the south - 444 km. It borders Tomsk Oblast in the north, Kazakhstan in the south-west, Omsk Oblast in the west, Altai Territory in the south, Kemerovo Oblast in the east.

The main rivers of the Oblast are Ob and Om. Novosibirsk water storage research was created by the dam of Novosibirsk HPP. Also, there are about 3 thousand fresh-water, salt-water and bitter lakes (Chany, Ubinskoye, Sartlan, etc.) in the Oblast.

Industry

Novosibirsk Oblast is one of the most industrialized Oblasts in Siberia: it produces about 10% of all industrial products, the main part of which accrues to heavy industry factories, placed mainly in Novosibirsk, Iskitim and Berdsk. In the industrial structure the processing sector is dominated. 21,7%  accrue to machine building industry and metalworking (2003), 24,9% - to food industry, 18,3% - to electric power industry, and about 10% - to nonferrous-metals industry.

Electrical engineering (generators and turbines, large electric steel furnaces), aircraft and instrument engineering, producing of machine tools and farming machinery are dominated in the machine-building complex. Novosibirsk Oblast provides 20% of engineering products of Siberia.

Agriculture

Agriculture of the Oblast makes a specialty out of growing of corn, potatoes and vegetables. Dairy and meat cattle breeding, poultry farming and bee keeping are developed. The production of flax plays an important role. The agricultural development of the Oblast is not too high (48%), but the quarter of all agricultural lands of Western Siberia accrues to Novosibirsk Oblast.

The industry of livestock specialty is dairy and meat trend of stock-rearing. Kulunda districts are distinguished by specializing in fine-wool sheep breeding.

Transportation

Novosibirsk is the largest transport junction in Western Siberia, it is located on the crossing of highways. In the city there are four railway stations, among which the station "Novosibirsk-Main" is the largest one in Ural, the terminal station "Inskaya" is largest in Russia, the work for modernization of the container terminal at the station Kleschiha is actively performed.

Novosibirsk is connected by airlines with more than 100 cities in Russia and the world. In the city there is an airport of regional significance “Novosibirsk-North”. At 30 km from the city's center there is one of the largest airports in the state - Tolmachevo, which can serve all types of modern planes of domestic and foreign manufacture, passenger and freight purposes.

Two motorways of federal significance pass across Novosibirsk - I-51 "Baikal" (from Chelyabinsk via Omsk, Kemerovo, Krasnoyarsk to Chita with the exit to the newly built federal highway "Amur" from Chita to Khabarovsk) and M-52 "Chuysky track" (via Biysk to the border with Mongolia).

Urban passenger transport is various - buses, trolleybuses, trams, taxis, including fixed-route taxis, and an underground, which is one in the Asian part of Russia. The automated accounting system and cashless payment of passage is implemented in all types of public passenger transport.

Novosibirsk underground - the first and one in the east part of the state - was opened at the end of 1985, and now has two operating lines with total length of 14.3 km and 12 stations. He takes 3 rd place among Russian undergrounds under the average daily total passenger carriage.

Attractions

-        Novosibirsk State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre

-        Drama Theatre "Old House"

-        Youth Theatre  “Globe”

-        Novosibirsk Drama Theatre “Red flambeau”

-         Drama Theatre under the direction of Sergei Afanasiev

-        Novosibirsk Theatre of Musical Comedy

-        Novosibirsk Oblast Puppet Theatre

-        Novosibirsk State Philharmonic Society

-        Theatre "Actor's House"

-        Novosibirsk Art Gallery

-        Museum of Cossack glory

-        Novosibirsk Museum of railway technics of  Akulinin N.A.

-        Museum of “Siberian birchbark”

-        Novosibirsk Zoo

-        Ascension Cathedral

-        Cathedral of Alexander Nevsky

-        Chapel in the name of St. Nicholas

-        Protection of The Holy Mary Church

-        Church of the holy Martyr Eugenia

-        Temple in the name of the Holy Great Martyr and Healer Panteleimon

-        Trinity Church in North Chemsk residential area

-        Dormitory church in on Zatulinsk residential area

-        Temple in the name of the Kazan icon of the Mother of God (Krasnoobsk) Soviet and Pervomaisky districts

-        Temple in the name of All Saints in the Land of Russian beamed in Novosibirsk Akademgorodok

-        Temple of the Nativity of the Most Holy Mother of God

-        Church of the Annunciation at Gateway

-        St. Nicholas Church in Nyzhnaya Eltsovka

-        Friary in the name of John the Forerunner (Ob HPP)

-        Temple of St Mitrophan Voronezh (Matveevka)

-        Temple of in the name of the Kazan icon of the Mother of God (CSM)

Non-Orthodox Churches

-        Cathedral of the Transfiguration is Catholic Cathedral

Famous People

-        Alexander Alexandrov (1912-1999) is a scientist, internationally renowned mathematician, author of textbooks on geometry, a philosopher, mountaineer

-        Oleg Antonov (1906-1981) is the world-renowned aircraft designer, he worked in Novosibirsk aviation plant of Chkalov from 1945 to 1948

-        Dmitry Belyaev (1917-1985) is a scientist, geneticist, author of the concept of destabilizing selection

-        Gersh Budker (1918-1977) is  a physicist, the member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the founder of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of SB RAS, winner of  Stalin and Lenin Prizes

-        Maxim Vengerov (b. in 1974) is the world famous violin virtuoso

-        Alexander Karelin (b. in 1967) is an sportsman, Honored Master of Sports, Greco-Roman wrestler, three-time Olympic Champion, nine time world champion, Olympic silver medalist in 2000,  multiple champion of the USSR and Russia, the Hero of the Russian Federation

-        Anatoly Kvashnin (b. in 1946) is Russian public and military leader, General of the Army (1997). The Hero of the Russian Federation. Chief of General Staff of Armed Forces of Russia (1997-2004), the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federationin in Siberian Federal District (since 2004)

-        Yuri Kondratyuk (his real name is Sharga Alexander Ignatievich) (1897-1942) is an engineer, one of the founders of world space exploration and rocket engineering

-        Aleksei Kosygin (1904-1980) is a politician, Prime Minister of the USSR from 1964 to 1980

-        Stanislav Pozdnyakov (b. in 1973) is a four-time Olympic champion, eight-time world champion, 13-time European champion, five-time World Cup winner in rattle the sabre. The Honored Master of Sports

-        Alexander Pokryshkin (1913-1985) is a fighter pilot; the first three-time Hero of the Soviet Union. Air Marshal (1972)