Nizhni Novgorod Region
The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Nizhny Novgorod Region
Federal District: The Privolzhsky Federal District
Area: 76 624 km2
Population: 3 323 600 persons.
Emblem of Nizhny Novgorod Region
Flag of Nizhny Novgorod Region
The ancient epic land! Here the word “Rus” is filled with some special meaning, as if thrilling with unique sounds: the chiming of bells that sanctify the whole Russian country; the verses of great Pushkin with his unique Boldino autumn, the sounds of the great Kremlin that give Nizhny the status of a capital city.
The Nizhny Novgorod land is a cradle of national achievements. It is the understanding the victory of inspired romanticism over pragmatism. It's not for nothing that millions of tourists from all around the world long to come here and plunge into the unique charm of this remarkable land.
Everyone feels fine here; even breathing comes as an inspiration and you just can't help smiling. Maybe that's what it means to be happy. Hospitable citizens smile back, as well as poetic nature. Suddenly the traveller finds the key to the greatest mystery – how to understand himself and see the harmony in our great world.
Believe us, it's worth leaving all the worldly business aside and come here to feel the pleasant moments filled with romantic happiness of travelling.
Nizhny Novgorod regionisthe subject of the Russian Federation
Administrative center – Nizhny Novgorod.
Population density- 43.44 people/km² (2009)
Proportion of urban population: 78.9% (2009).
The RSFSR Nizhny Novgorod region was established on January 14, 1929.
In 1990, the region was renamed The Nizhny Novgorod region.
Borders: in the north-west it borders with the Kostroma region, in the north-east - with the Kirov region, in the east - with the Mari El and Chuvashia republics , in the south - withthe Republic of Mordovia, in the south-west - with the Ryazan Region, in the west - with the Vladimir and the Ivanovo regions.
There are 48 districts in the oblast; 28 towns with 12 of them being of oblast subordination: Nizhny Novgorod, Dzerzhinsk, Arzamas, Sarov, Pavlovo, Kstovo, Bor, Balakhna, Vyksa, Kulebaki, Bogorodsk, Gorodets; 69 urban-type settlements and about 4.5 thousand rural settlements.
Founded by Prince Yuri (George) Vsevolodovich in 1221 at the confluence of two great rivers of the Volga (in Tatar — Idel) and Okaas a base defense of the Russian borders fromMordovians, Cheremisses and Tatars. In 1341 the city became the capital of an independent duchy of Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod, which occupied a vast territory. In the east its boundary ran along the river Sura, in the south-east and the south — along the rivers Pyanaand Seryozha.
The west boundary ran along the right bank of the Oka up to Murom, then through the lower reaches of the Klyazma, including Suzdal and Shuya. In the north the duchy borders crossed downstream te Unzha, the Vetluga and Kerzhenets. The main stronghold in the east was a fortress Kurmysh, founded in 1372. Along the border there stood small fortresses redoubt where border guards lived. Some remains of these forts are found in Buturlinsky and Sergachsky districts on the Pyana river. In the middle of the XV century at the time of Moscow duchy consolidation the Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod duchy was added to the Moscow dominions.
During the times of Ivan III and Vasily III the city played the role of a sentry post, had a regular army, and was a gathering place for campaigns againstthe Khanate of Kazan. At the same time a stone acropolis was built instead of the existing timber one. After a campaign of Vasily III in Kazan in 1523 a town called Vasil was founded on the river Sura (now Vasilsursk), to which the border duties were passed, and after the conquest of Kazan by Ivan IV the watchdog role of Nizhny Novgorod became a minor one. In the Time of Troubles, despite the fact that the whole country was in the hands of outlaws, Nizhny Novgorod was the only town, along with the Holy Trinity- St.Sergius Lavra, continued to support Moscow.
As a result, Nizhny Novgorod played a crucial role in the liberation from Polish invaders. Nizhny Novgorod militia was led by Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky. In XVII century the schism that took place in the Orthodox Church under Patriarch Nikon resulted in the fact that numerous settlements of Old Believers were formed near Nizhny Novgorod and especially on the river Kerzhenets , formed. To eliminate the split in Nizhny Novgorod a new arch-diocese was created in 1672.
Filaret, the Archimandrite of Vladimir Rozhdestvensky monastery, was appointed the first Metropolitan of Nizhny Novgorod and Alatyr. The metropolitan arch-see existed in Nizhny until 1719. As a result of the administrative-territorial reforms of Peter the Great Nizhny Novgorod from 1719 on became a provincial city. In XIX century on the opposite Oka bank there developed the Russia's biggest fair, which appeared due to rapid economic development of the town and surrounding villages. There were major industries in the surrounding villages (Sormovo, Kanavino). The railroad was built. In 1896, the area Kanavino held the largest Russian Industry and Art Exhibition in pre-revolutionary Russia.
After the October Revolution, the Soviet power took over the city in autumn 1917. In 1929 Sormovo and Kanavino were abolished, their territory together with some villages were included in the territory of Bolshoy Nizhny Novgorod, which since then was divided into districts. In the same year the old administrative division of the country's provinces was done away with. Nizhny Novgorod Province was abolished. Nizhny Novgorod became the center of Nizhny Novgorod region (from 1932 until the abolition of the Gorky region).
In 1932 the city was renamed Gorky. Thirties of XX century were the time of rapid industrial growth in Nizhny Novgorod (Gorky).
In 1932 the largest industrial enterprise — Gorky Automobile Plant – started working, which was an important object of the defense industry during the difficult years of the Great Patriotic War.
In 1990 the old name of Nizhny Novgorod was returned to the city.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate:
Nizhny Novgorod Region is located in the central part of the East European Plain.
The Volga divides the region into the low left bank (left bank) and the elevated right bank — the continuation of the Volga Upland (Upland Mordovia, height up to 247 m elevation Chuvash, Peremilovskie, Faddeev mountains, hills Mezhpyane). Nizhny Novgorod region stretches in the meridional direction of its length from the north to the south for about 400 km and from the west the east in the widest southern part for about 300 km. The main differences in climate occur on the north-south line, between the trans-Volga woodland and the elevated right bank.
The most part of the area is situated in the temperate continental climate zone. The average annual temperature varies from 3.0 in the north to 4,5 º C. the southern region. The average annual precipitation is about 600—650 mm; precipitation in the Volga River and 500—550 mm in the right bank, two thirds of which falls as rain. From September to May southern and south-westerly winds dominate in the area, and in the summer months — the north-western ones. The average wind speed is 3—4 m/sec.
— engineering, chemistry, pig iron and steel, timber, pulp and paper, light and food industries are developed in the region.
Rye, oats, barley, wheat, buckwheat, sugar beets, fiber-flax are grown in the region. Onions and potatoes are also cultivated. Dairy and beef and dairy cattle, pig breeding and poultry keeping are well-developed. Greenhouse plants grow about 12 tonnes of off-season vegetable production. In 2009 there was raised 1.5 million tons of grain, which exceeded the requirements of the districs. Region's own meat products is enough, the meat is imported from Argentina and other countries.
There are developed systems of automobile, railroad, air and river transportation.
All the railway main lines belong to the Gorky railway. The main junctions are situated at the territories of Nizhny Novgorod and Arzamas. Since 2010 on the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod line the high-speed “Sapsan” trains traffic have been opened.
The regular navigation is carried out on the Volga, the Oka, the Vetluga and the Sura rivers. The largest ports: Nizhegorodsky, Dzerzhinsky, Gorodetsky, Borsky and Kstovsky.
Through the Nizhny Novgorod oblast pass federal (M7, R158) and regional highways (R72, R81, R125, R157, R159, R160, R161 and R162).
There are several airports and airbases in the oblast. As of 2011, the international airport “Strigino” carries out regular flights.
Types of tourism:
· Cultural and educational
· Hunting and fishing
Places of interest
· Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin
· The Pushkin state literature, memorial and natural reserve museum “Boldino”
· Museum and tourist complex “The city of craftsmen”
· Museum and tourist centre “Khokhloma”
· The Holy Trinity-Saint Seraphim-Diveyevo Monastery
· Zheltovodsky Makaryev Convent (formerly Monastery) of the Holy Trinity
· The Kerzhensky reserve
· The natural park “Voskresenskoye Povetluzhye”
· The mining, geology and speleology museum
· Duke Pashkov's estate
· Kuzma Minin— a Russian patriot
· Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Kasyanov – a Russian composer
· Nikolay Ivanovich Lobachevsky – a great Russian mathematician
· Nikolay Aleksandrovich Dobrolyubov – a Russian writer and literature critic
· Melnikov-Pechersky (Pavel Ivanovich Melnikov) – a Russian writer
· Maksim Gorky (Aleksey Maksimovich Peshkov) – a great Russian writer
· Valeriy Pavlovich Chkalov – a famous pilot
· Evgeny Aleksandrovich Evstigneev – a famous actor, a people's artist of the USSR
· Ivan Petrovich Kulibin – an outstanding Russian mechanic and inventor
· Ivan Mikhaylovich Sechenov – an outstanding Russian scientist
Emergency phone numbers
United rescue service (including fire protection service) – 01
Police — 02
Ambulance — 03
Nizhny Novgorod State board of civil defence and emergency situations:
Phone: (831) 433-6614 (full time)
Nizhny Novgorod scientific-research institute of traumatology and orthopedics — Minina str., 32.
Phone: (831) 436-3423
Pharmacy on duty — Bolshaya Pokrovka Str., 15а.
Phone: (831) 419-7542
Sources of information on region tourist facilities
Nizhny Novgorod oblast Ministry of micro-entrepreneurship, consumer market and services support and development; the department of tourism and national artistic trade development
Phone: (831) 434-1178, (831) 430-6857
The Russian ministry of Emergency situations territorial bodies
The Russian ministry of Emergency Nizhny Novgorod main rescue service:
Phone: (831) 277-9395