The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Ural Federal District
Area: 88 529 km2
Population: 3 400 000 persons.
Emblem of Chelyabinsk Oblast
Flag of Chelyabinsk Oblast
Chelyabinsk region - the constituent entity of the Russian Federation
The administrative center - the city of Chelyabinsk, with a population of 1.1 million people, situated at a distance of 1919 km from Moscow. On October 26, 2006 law № 66-ZO was passed "On administrative-territorial system of the Chelyabinsk region" (signed by the Governor November 8, 2006). According to him, "administrative-territorial division of the Chelyabinsk region - Territorial Organization of the Chelyabinsk region, which is a system of administrative-territorial units, serving the legal basis for the functioning of state authorities and local self-government, providing citizens' participation in the management of government and public affairs." Paragraph 2 of Article 1 defines "to the administrative-territorial units in the Chelyabinsk region are: the territorial area of the city, cities, districts, townships (working villages), village councils." List of administrative-territorial units approved in the resolution of the Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk region of 25 May 2006 № 161 "On approving the list of municipalities (administrative units) of the Chelyabinsk region and localities within them" as well as in the Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Chelyabinsk region.
The composition of the Chelyabinsk region includes 316 municipalities, including 16 urban districts, 27 municipalities, 27 towns and 246 villages. The youngest settlements officially recognized as urban districts - Ozersk, Snezhinsk, Trekhgorny, and Locomotive - have a status of closed administrative-territorial formations (CATF). Status and municipal boundaries are established by the laws of the region.
The population of Chelyabinsk region, as of, 01/01/2012 - 3.4 million people. In urban area population 2.8 million people, representing 81.3% of the total population, rural - 626.3 thousand people. Major cities: Magnitogorsk - 408.5 thousand people, Chrysostom - 177 thousand people, Miass - 166.6 thousand people, Kopeysk - 139.8 thousand people.
Before the Russian colonization of the Southern Urals in the XVII century, the territory of the Chelyabinsk region was home to the modern ethnic groups of the Bashkir people. The Russian population settled by the river Iset, Tobol in the Middle, Lower River Miass. The first mention of the Russian settlement, is the settlement Beloyarsk, Krasnoarmeyskiy District, in 1682. The period from the end of the XVII century to the beginning of the XVIII century was marked by Tsar Peter and his reforms, seeking to bring Russia into the patriarchal way of technical re-equipment. In 30-ies of the XVIII century the southern Urals begin intensive construction of fortifications. In 1736 "Chelyabinsk town" was founded. Thanks to the natural resources found in the depths of the Ural Mountains, the Southern Urals region is strategically important for Russia. Beginning with the 50-60s of the XVIII century, there began active development of these resources. After the 1812 war, the modern art industry began to form in the territory of the Chelyabinsk region, which eventually became an independent and unique cultural phenomenon. The main center of artistic industry was Chrysostom Castle. In 1815 in Zlatoust an arms factory was created. The Chelyabinsk region is strongly associated with artistic iron casting. Iron casting was utilized in the Castle in 1815. At the beginning of the XIX century a gold boom began in the Southern Urals. This "gold boom" happened when a plant opened in the Miass containing rich deposits of gold. Socio-economic development of the region contributed to the construction of the railway network linking Samara to Chelyabinsk, and Chelyabinsk to Yekaterinburg. The first train arrived in Chelyabinsk from Samara on October 22, 1892. In the 30th year of what is now the Chelyabinsk region, massive industrialization began. The main events of industrialization were the construction of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant and the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine, which was built next to the city of Magnitogorsk. The date of foundation of the Chelyabinsk region is considered to be in 1934. During the Great Patriotic War, the Chelyabinsk region was the "edge of the reference power." Chelyabinsk produced heavy tanks, self-propelled units, and ammunition, so the town was named "tankograd."
On January 17, 1934, the Ural region was disaggregated, resulting in the Chelyabinsk Region being established. Due to this, the area of the region did decline. Thus, in the period from 1938 to 1943 of the Chelyabinsk region transferred to the seven districts of Sverdlovsk region. After the transfer of 32 districts to the newly-formed Kurgan region on February 6, 1943, the border area has remained practically unchanged.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate
The Chelyabinsk region is located on the border between Europe and Asia, the southern Ural Mountains and adjacent plains. Chelyabinsk Region has 88.53 sq. kilometers (8,852,900 hectares), representing 0.5% of Russian territory, and 3.5 million people (2.5% of the population of Russia). By area, this region is greater than Austria, Ireland and other European countries, but less than its neighbors in the Ural region. Chelyabinsk region is located in the southern part of the Urals. The notional boundary between Europe and Asia is carried out mainly on the ridges of the watershed of the Ural Mountains. Not far from the station Urzhumka YUUZHD (8 km from Chrysostom), at the pass Uraltau stands a stone pillar. On one side is marked "Europe" and on the other, "Asia". The city of Chrysostom, Katav-Ivanovsk, and Satka are in Europe. Chelyabinsk, Troitsk, and Miass in Asia. Magnitogorsk is in both parts of the world. The length of the region from north to south is 490 km. From west to east is 400 km. The geographical center of the area is located on the right bank of the Ui, 3 km to the southeast of the village Nizhneustselemovo Uyskogo area. The Chelyabinsk region is the territory ranked 5th out of 8 regions of the Urals. The Chelyabinsk region is primarily the eastern slope of South Urals and the adjacent part of the Trans-Ural plains and the West Siberian Plain. Only a small part of the territory in the west, the so-called Mountain-area factory, comes on the western slopes of the Southern Urals. The relief of the Chelyabinsk region is highly diverse. It was formed over millions of years. Within the Chelyabinsk region, there are various areas, from the lowlands and hilly plains to mountain ranges, peaks exceeding 1000 m. The highest point of the area is Mount Nurgush (1406 m). Within the region originate the many rivers that belong to the basins of the Kama, Tobol and Ural. Since these are, basically, their upper reaches, they are shallow. There are 358 rivers over 10 km long. Rivers the length of 100 km are a total of 17. And only 7 rivers Miass, Uy, the Urals, Hay, Ufa, Uvelka, Gumbeyka - are in the range of length greater than 200 km.
The boundaries of the Chelyabinsk region contain one of the most important industrial and economic complexes of the Urals. The Chelyabinsk region extracts and processes 95% of the graphite and magnesite, 70% of the talc, and 71% of the dolomite in Russia. For the extraction of these minerals the region occupies a monopoly position in Russia. The region has more than 300 deposits of iron ore, copper-zinc, gold, refractory clays, talc, graphite, quartz, kaolin, barite, and phosphorite. In the region are dozens of large factories and power plants. The enterprises of the Chelyabinsk region produce 27% of the steel and 15% of the steel pipes in Russia. The development area is defined by metallurgy, machine building, energy, construction, agro-industrial complexes. The main types of products are industrial tractors, trucks, bulldozers, graders, cranes, tramways, mining and metallurgical equipment. In the north-west of the region are unique major centers of the nuclear industry (Snezhinsk and Ozersk), and in the west are the centers of rocket and space technology. The Chelyabinsk Region ranks 11th in terms of gross regional product, the 4th place in terms of production in manufacturing, 13 place for investment in fixed assets, in 10th place for the construction of housing. In terms of industrial production in the Urals region of Chelyabinsk, Sverdlovsk is second only. In the structure of its industry, ferrous metallurgy stands out (about half of the products). The iron and steel industry, the scale of which the region is unmatched in the country, represents one of the largest smelters (Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk), conversion plants (Chrysostom), enterprises for the production of ferroalloys and steel pipes (Chelyabinsk). In non-ferrous metallurgy is the production of copper (Karabash, Kyshtym), zinc (Chelyabinsk) and nickel (Upper Ufalej), accompanied by the production of refractory metals of magnesite (Satka). Mechanical engineering is based on its own metallurgical base, which accounts for its metal content, although less significant than in the Sverdlovsk region. Here, tractors, trucks, trams, technological equipment, rocket and space technology and electrical products are engineered. The power base region includes mining of lignite (Kopeisk) and several large thermal power plants (Trinity and South-Ural power plant, etc.). Part of the region in the 50s of the XX century has been subjected to radioactive contamination as a result of the accident at the plant for processing waste "Lighthouse". The most "atomic cities" in Russia are located here, belonging to the nuclear fuel cycle: Snezhinsk (formerly Chelyabinsk-70), Ozersk (formerly Chelyabinsk-65) and Trekhgorny (former Chrysostom, 36).
With clear predominance of industrial area has developed agriculture, especially in the zone of "black earth" soil. Most large crops are wheat and other crops. Livestock has been typically meat and dairy. There is fine-wool sheep. Around industrial sites there is developed agriculture, suburban type. The share of agriculture in the economic structure of the Chelyabinsk region is about 6%. Most of the agricultural production accounts for crop production (55.6%). The population in rural areas is 655.6 thousand, or 18.6% of the population. Investment in agriculture is more than 1.3 billion rubles. Particular attention is paid to strengthening the material-technical base in the form of allocation of equipment leasing, renovation of production, introduction of modern technologies. The rise of agriculture is one of the strategic directions of economic policy of the regional government.
Transportation and road complex of Chelyabinsk region have been part of the region's infrastructure. JSC "RZD" - South-Ural Railway (YUUZHD) is a major freight carrier in the region. It accounts for almost 90% of the total turnover. Annually, commuter trains at the Chelyabinsk branch of the road on average carried 13 million passengers. The total length of highways of the Chelyabinsk region is 18.5 thousand km, of which 612 km - federal, 8503 km - regional, 5720 - departmental and 3931 - other. Solid surface are 8320 km of roads of regional significance (97.8%) of them improved - 5843 km. The Chelyabinsk Airport is the gateway to the Southern Urals. The length of the runway is 3.2 thousand km. Currently, the airport of Chelyabinsk provides 12 air carriers.
Things to do
In the Chelyabinsk region there are 10 theaters, 3 concert organizations, 42 museums. The largest museums in the region are:
• Chelyabinsk Regional Museum, containing a unique fund of rare books, ethnographic materials, painting and porcelain;
• Museum of arts and crafts of the Urals.
Theaters and orchestras of having Russian and international prominence, are:
• Chelyabinsk academic drama theater.
• Chelyabinsk Theater of Opera and Ballet.
• Chamber Drama Theatre.
• Russian folk orchestra "Malachite".
• Hall of Chamber and Organ music from one of the best agencies in Europe, produced by German company "Eule".
In the region there are a wide network of cultural centers, clubs, libraries and music schools. The Southern Urals is the birthplace of world-renowned art of casting and Kasli Zlatoust steel engraving. The region has about 300 historical monuments, 1500 archeological monuments. Two sites have global significance: Ignatievskaya cave with rock art and settlement of proto Arkaim - the coeval of Homeric Troy. There are 500 registered monuments of architecture. Many of the monuments, with a unique natural landscape, are the basis for the development of tourism both domestic and international.
Igor V. Kurchatov (December 30, 1902 (January 12, 1903) - February 7, 1960). Soviet physicist, academician of the USSR (1943), scientific director of the Soviet atomic project, three times Hero of Socialist Labor (1949, 1951, 1954). He was born December 30, 1902 (January 12, 1903) in the village Simskski Zavod, Ufa province (now Sim Asha district of Chelyabinsk region).
Boris Shaposhnikov (September 20 (October 2), 1882 - March 26, 1945). The Soviet military commander, military theorist, Marshal of the Soviet Union (1940), Chief of General Staff of the Red Army in 1937-1940 and 1941-1942. Born on September 20 (October 2) in 1882 in Zlatoust, provincial town of Ufa province.
Chernetsov, Alexander (born March 9, 1953). Sculptor, painter and graphic artist. Author of many monuments and Yuryuzan area. He was born, lives and creative works in the city Juruzan.
Vasily Konstantinovich Blucher (November 19 (December 1), 1890 - November 9, 1938). The Soviet commander, Marshal of the Soviet Union (1935). In November 1917 the Commissioner was sent to Red Guard units in Chelyabinsk, where he was elected chairman of Revolutionary Committee, and in March 1918 became Chairman of the Board.