Nenets Autonomous District
The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Nenets Autonomous Area
Federal District: The North-Western Federal District
Area: 176 700 км² km2
Population: 42 344 тыс. persons.
Emblem of Nenets Autonomous District
Flag of Nenets Autonomous District
Nenets Autonomous District is the subject of the Russian Federation.
The administrative center of the district is the city of Naryan-Mar district was formed July 15, 1929.
In the south district borders on the Republic of Komi, in the south-west — on the Arkhangelsk region, in the north-east — on the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District.
The population is 42 344 people 2010), the population density is 0,24 people. / km ².
Areas that are in the oblast: the territory of the Nenets Autonomous Area is two urban settlements: the town of Naryan-Mar and settlement of Iskately. The other towns have the status of rural areas. (The settlement Amderma transformed into a rural settlement in 2009). In 2005 was founded the Polar Region Nenets Autonomous District, which includes the entire territory of the district, except the territory of the urban district of Naryan-Mar.
The first human settlements in the district were the 8th millennium BC.. (Paleolithic). There are numerous sites of the Bronze Age (2—1 millennium BC..). In the V—XIII centuries . here lived the tribes of unknown ethnicity, which the Russian was known under the name Pechora, and Nenets called Sirte. This culture is Ortinskoe castle, the sanctuary on the River. Gnilke and on.island Vaigach.
Nenets people migrated to the territory of the district of the Lower Ob River in early 2nd millennium. A.D. Around the same time begins the colonization of the extreme north-east Europe, Novgorod. Russian annals note the dependence in the 9th century Pechora and Ugra of the Kievan princes, and the systematic collection of tribute. The final establishment of the rule over Novgorod Pechora occurred in 13—15 centuries. After the annexation of Novgorod to Moscow (1478) the territory of present Nenets Autonomous District also annexed to the Moscow State. In 1500 a military expedition of Prince Seeds Kurbsky on the Pechora River was founded Barrier fortress Pustozersk. This now defunct city for centuries was the administrative and commercial center of all the land from Mezen to the Urals.
Lower Pechora and Barents Sea coast were being explored, except for Russian (Pomorie) and the Nenets, Komi and Zyryanov, Komi and Komi-Permian Izhemtsy. In the XVIII century, the colonization of Pomor Kanin Peninsula.
In the 19-beginning of XX century the territory of the district was part of the Arkhangelsk province.
District was formed in 1929 under the name of the Nenets National District, in 1977 renamed the Autonomous Region.
Geographical position, natural resources
Climate: Nenets Autonomous Area is located in the north of the East European Plain, a large part is situated above the Arctic Circle. It includes Kolguev and Vaigach, Kanin Peninsula. It’s washed by the White, Barents, Pechora and Kara seas of the Arctic Ocean. Relief of the territory is mostly flat; distinguished ancient Timan Ridge and the Pai-Khoi ridge (height 467 m), wetlands and the Bolshaya Zemlya and Malaya Zemlya Tundra. The main river is— river Pechora. In the Nenets autonomous district there is a dense network of small rivers and small lakes, often connected by short channels. In the Nenets Autonomous District common are tundra and peaty-gley soils.
The air temperature in summer is determined by solar radiation and therefore naturally rises from the north to the south. An average July temperature in Naryan-Mar is +12 ° C. The cold half of the year, the main factor is temperature heat transfer from the Atlantic, so clearly expressed by a decrease in temperature from west to east. An average January temperature in Naryan-Mar is -16 ° C, winter lasts an average of 220—240 days. The whole territory of the district is located in the zone of excessive moisture. Annual precipitation ranges from 400 mm (on the coasts and seas in the Arctic islands) to 700 mm. Minimum precipitation is observed in February, the maximum — in August — September. At least 30% of precipitation falls as snow, there is constant congelation.
The climate is harsh: the average January temperature ranges from -12 ° C in the south-west to -22 ° C in the northeast, the average July temperature is +6 ° C, in the north to +13 ° C in the south there is permafrost. Nenets Autonomous District exposed the systematic invasion of the Atlantic and Arctic air masses. Frequent changes of air masses are the reason for the constant variability of the weather. In winter and autumn prevail in the south wind component, and in the summer - the northern and north-east due to the invasion of cold arctic air to the hot continent, where the atmospheric pressure is reduced at this time.
Enterprises in the region:
• Diesel power
• CJSC "Sevgeoldobycha"
• CJSC "Yalumd"
• Sea Port
• Naryan-Mar city power
• Nenets Forestry
• JSC "Plant Maslodelatelny Vita"
• JSC "Naryan-Marokrgaz"
• JSC "Naryan-Marseismorazvedka"
• JSC "Naryan-Mar timber"
• JSC "fish factory" Pechora "
• JSC "Bakery"
- National History Museum
- The building of the District Post Office
- Monument to the 500 th anniversary Pustozersk
- Monument Yaku-7B
- Cultural-business center