The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The North-Western Federal District
Area: 144 902 km2
Population: 836 672 persons.
Emblem of Murmansk region
Flag of Murmansk region
Murmansk region is a the subject of the Russian Federation.
Its administrative center is the city of Murmansk.
The population is 836,672 people (2010). Population density is 5.8 persons / km ², the proportion of urban population is 91.21%.
In the west it borders on Norway and Finland, in the south it borders on the Republic of Karelia.
The Murmansk region is composed of 12 urban districts and five municipalities. In the municipal district boundaries are established 23 settlements, including 13 urban and 10 rural.
The history of human stay in what is now the Murmansk oblast is several thousand years old. Monuments discovered by archaeologists confirm the presence of people on the Kola Peninsula is in the VIII-VII century BC, during the Arctic Paleolithic. In 1625 on the Kola Peninsula, there were about 2500 people.
On October 4, 1916 settlement on the Kola Peninsula was founded a town with a new name - Romanov-on-Murman. On this day, on a small hill where now stands the Palace of Culture and Science of Kirov, a ceremony of laying a temple in honor of the Patron Saint of Seafarers Nicholas of Myra. Romanov-on-Murman was the last city to be established in the Russian Empire. In 1917, it received the status of the city and the name - Murmansk. Six months later, on April 3, 1917, after the February Revolution, he took its current name - Murmansk. On June 13, 1921 Alexander County Arkhangelsk region has been transformed in the Murmansk region with the center in the city of Murmansk, and on August 1, 1927 Province transformed into Murmansk county and incorporated into the Leningrad region.
In 1970, in honor of the 100th anniversary of Lenin was made the Kola ultradeep well, the deepest borehole in the world, drilled solely for the study of the lithosphere at the point where the line comes close to the surface of the Earth. At the end of 1970 Murmansk oblast ranked second in the north-western region of space in terms of gross industrial output of the Soviet Union and subsequent hyperinflation caused the economic crisis. Was dramatically reduced turnover of the ports.
By 2002, the number of residents decreased by 150 000 compared with 1989, nearly a third.
Despite the geographical distance, Murmansk today live a very active life. It sold a variety of business - projects, the city visited by a large number of not only Russian but also foreign businessmen. Politicians, scientists, famous artists from different countries, did not bypass the Murmansk their attention.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate:
Murmansk oblast is situated in Northern Europe. It is located on the Kola Peninsula, as well as on Rybachy (peninsula), Sredny. The islands are Aynovskie Islands, Veliky, Seven Islands, Kildin. For the most part they are in the Arctic Circle. Almost the whole Murmansk oblast is covered with tundra and forest tundra, just to the south region - the northern taiga.
The biggest enterprises of the region:
- "Apatite" (Kirovsk) — production of apatite concentrate
- "Kandalaksha Aluminum Plant" (Kandalaksha) — production of primary aluminum
- "Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company" (Monchegorsk, Polar, Nickel) — production of nickel, refined copper, sulfuric acid
- Olenegorsky Mining — production of iron ore
- "Murmansk Trawl Fleet" (Murmansk) — fishing
In the Murmansk region has a unique power: Kislogubskaya tidal power plant, generating electricity from tidal energy (the only tidal power plant in Russia).
The main branch of agriculture is cattle breeding.
Cattle breeding provides milk cattle breeding, fattening pigs and poultry, an important industry is reindeer breeding.
In the oblast there are 12 state and 7 fishing farms, large farms of industrial enterprises. In the cultivated area is dominated by perennial and annual herbs, cabbage, etc.
Around the major cities are developed greenhouses.
The region held the federal road M-18 "Kola" from St. Petersburg through Petrozavodsk, Murmansk and Pechenga to the border with Norway (international automobile checkpoint "Borisoglebsk") of 1068 km. Results of the Murmansk region of public roads, there are 2566 km, of which paved 2472 km (or 96.3%) (in Russia as a whole 91.3%), including: II category (106 km), III category (628 km).
By provision of public roads paved Murmansk oblast has a rate of 1 km of 17.1 thousand km ². Of the 145 villages 106, or 73.1%, have a connection on paved roads with a network of public roads (at Russia as a whole - 66.1%). During the period of implementation of the "Roads of Russia" (2000-2004) in the Murmansk region were constructed and rehabilitated 50.1 km of federal and regional roads and 453.7 meters of bridges.
Until 2005, the relationship between the right and left banks of the Kola Bay was carried out on bridges across the river Cola Tuloma. Which was started in October 2005 bridge across the Kola Bay is a hub link that provides road transport links parts of the Murmansk region and the output to the borders of the Scandinavian countries (Norway, Finland) and a significant part of the Murmansk region. The construction of this bridge built since 1992 with equity participation of the federal budget. The length of the bridge - 2500 meters, the number of traffic lanes - 4, design and estimate the value of property prices in 2005 - 2,856,873,000 rubles.
The main road is AC electrified section 27.5 KV Kovda - Murmansk (double track from the station to station Apatity Kovda single track and double-track with the inserts from the station to station Apatity, Murmansk) line of St. Petersburg - Murmansk. The line was built in its original form during the First World War, and entered into a temporary operation of November 5, 1916.
Later, branches were built on the locomotive Alakurtti, Kovdor, Revda, Monchegorsk, Severomorsk, Nickel and Liinakhamari. In the early 1950s construction began on the east branch, to the bays and Ponoi Iokanga in the eastern part of the peninsula (the so-called. Kola Railway), but construction was not completed.
Despite the relative "youth" of the city, there are many attractions.
- Monument to the defenders of the Soviet Arctic — Murmansk Alyosha — the largest monument in Russia.
- Monument to the Sts Cyril and Methodius.
- Murmansk Regional Museum
- Monument sign (panel) icebreaker "Ermak"
- Murmansk Regional Museum of Art.
- Murmansk Oblast Puppet Theatre
- Murmansk Oblast Drama Theatre