The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Far Eastern Federal District
Area: 462 464 km2
Population: 161 248 persons.
Coat of arms of Magadan Oblast
Flag of Magadan Oblast
Magadan Oblast — is a subject of the Russian Federation.
Administrative center — the city of Magadan.
The Oblast was established on December 3, 1953.
Population: 161,248 (Census 2010). Population density: 0.35 /km² (Cesus2009). Proportion of urban population: 95.3% (Census 2009).
The oblast shares its border with Chukotka Autonomous Area in the north, the Kamchatka region in the east, Yakutia in the west, Khabarovsk Krai in the south.
Magadan Oblast has 53 municipalities: 1 city district (city of Magadan), 8 municipal areas, 21 urban and 23 rural settlements.
The territory of Magadan region was inhabited by Yakuts in the 18th century, before the first Russian Cossacks came to the Kolyma area. The history of Magadan area actually started in 1920s when geological survey expeditions arrived there.
In the beginning of 1930 expeditions found gold deposits. The group “Dalstroy” was organized and it worked the mines. By the end of 1930s the first gold mines were built and settlements were constructed around them.
At that time in Kolyma free labor of prisoners was widely used who were employed in the most difficult jobs. From 1950 prisoners were gradually substitute for labor force from other regions of the country.
Geographical Position, Natural Resources, Climate
The Oblast is located on the shores of the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific. About 3/4 of the territory is occupied by tundra and forest tundra. The main rivers of the oblast: Kolyma, Ayan-Yuryakh. Magadan oblast occupies a vast territory which is located in the high latitudes of the North - East Asia. The peculiar locations of mountain ranges, the nearness of the cold Sea of Okhotsk, the neighborhood of the cold pole in the Northern Hemisphere determine severity and variety of climatic conditions.
In general, there are three types of climate in oblast. The coastal zone is located in a strip of maritime climate of monsoon type. In the hinterland the climate is extremely continental, and in the narrow transition band - moderately continental.
In summer over the continent depression arises and relatively cold air masses come from the ocean to the continent, bringing moist air. This is summer monsoon.
In winter conversely: over the continent the area of high pressure with mainly clear and freezing weather forms. Air masses head for the coast and further on the ocean and form the winter monsoon with cold dry air flows. Hinterland areas receive low amount of precipitation, to 350 mm.
Major industries: mining (gold, silver mining and secondarily - tin, tungsten, coal mining) and fishing industry. The mining industry is almost entirely concentrated in Susumansk and Omsukchansk areas, and fishing - in the city of Magadan. There are Arkagalinsky SDPP, Kolyma HPP, Ust-Srednekanskaya HPP is building.
Agricultural lands occupy 0.5% of the territory and are located on the Sea of Okhotsk. Potatoes and some vegetables grow. People breed in a small number of cattle, pigs, poultry, and on the north-deer. There are fur farms (blue fox, black fox, and mink). Hunting for squirrel, ermine, and otter is developed.
The main transportation gate of the oblast is Magadan sea trade port through which most of freight arrives.
Near the city of Magadan there is an international airport "Magadan" (Sokol). Airport accepts all types of passenger airlines and heavy cargo aircraft.
The length of paved roads is 2,323 kilometers. Which includes improved surface, asphalt and cement concrete pavement of the rubble and gravel, processed binders, 330 miles. There is no railway service.
• Nagaevo Bay
• Gertner Bay
• Gorodskaya Sopka Krutaya
• Peninsula Staritskoy
• Atkinsky faunal area
• Reserve Magadan