The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Ural Federal District
Area: 1 435 200 km2
Population: 3 430 196 persons.
Emblem of Tyumen region
Flag of Tyumen Region
Tyumen Region is the constituent entity of the Russian Federation.
Administrative Center is the city of Tyumen.
The region was founded on August 14, 1944.
Population: 3,430,196 people (2010). Population density — 2.4 people/km²
Districts included into the region: 25 districts (autonomous districts are not counted).
The region borders with Omsk, Kurgan, Sverdlovsk, Tomsk Regions, Nenets Autonomous District, Komi Republic, Krasnoyarsk Kray, as well as North-Kazakhstan region of Kazakhstan; it is the only region of Russia, stretching (along with the autonomous districts) from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the state border in the south.
Settlement of the territory of contemporary Tyumen region by the Russians began in XVI century. Tumen, the oldest Russian city in Siberia, became the heart of this region. It was founded in the lower reaches of the navigable river Tura, near the forest and forest-steppe boundaries. In the XVIII century a Siberian horse-drawn tract route passed through Tyumen.
The appearance of steamship company in the River Ob’s basin in 1840s and the railway construction from Yekaterinburg in 1880s greatly increased the importance of the region as trade and transport and transshipment point.
In Tyumen Region, in XVIII—XIX centuries, various manufacturing industries developed , firstly it was mainly currying, and later a number of industries (millers, cord and rope manufacturing, repair and construction of steam ships, etc.) were added.
1944 is the official year of foundation of Tyumen Region with its centre in the city of Tyumen. In the post-war period other industries such as machine-building, construction materials manufacturing, light industry, etc. got further development.
In 1920s—40s Tyumen Region remained largely an agricultural region. Since the mid of 1960s a new stage of development starts in Tyumen Region — in a relatively short time the region became the country's energy base. The development of modern Tyumen Region is contributed by its relative proximity to the industrial centers of the Middle Urals.
Among favorable factors are the following: significant water supply sources, location of large peat lands near the city and, what is most important, the good prospects for providing Tyumen Region with cheap oil and gas fuel.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate
By its area Tumen Region occupies the 3rd place in Russia, going right after Yakutia and Krasnoyarsk Kray, and the 1st place among 4 regions of the Urals Federal District.
The Region occupies a large part of the West Siberian Plain and in fact divides the territory of Russia into two major parts: westward is the Urals and the European part of the country, eastward is its asian part: Siberia and the Far East.
Tyumen Region stretches for 2100 km from north to south and 1400 km from west to east.
The northernmost point of the Tyumen Region is located on the Yamal Peninsula – it is Skuratov cape 73° 30 ' n.l., the westernmost one is situated in Severnaya Sosva River head (58° 50 'e.l.), the easternmost point is located in the Nizhevartovsk district by the Vah River head (86° 00'), the southernmost point is in Sladkovsk district, on the border with Kazakhstan (55° 10 ' n.l.).
The Region has extreme climatic conditions in the most of the territory - 90% of it is referred to the areas of Far North, or are equated to it.
Major rivers of the Region are Ob and Irtysh rivers – they are of shipping significance. Most of the territory is covered by forests.
The climate of the Tyumen Region is continental. It is characterized by severe and long winter, short and cold summer in the north and warm summer in the south, the mid-seasons with the late spring and early autumn frosts.
The flat relief pattern of the Region, its openness from the north and the south contribute to the deep penetration of cold Arctic air mass and the free removal of the continental temperate and even tropical air masses from south to north. Most of precipitations fall from May to October.
According to the volume of industrial production the Region occupies the leading place in Russia. The main branch of specialization is the fuel industry.
Electricity production industry is highly developed.
The main focus of engineering enterprises is the following: equipment for oil development, exploration, oil refining industries, production of tractor trailers, woodworking machines.
A significant part of the timber is exported in raw. Thus, the availability of oil and gas in Tyumen Region has created prerequisites for the development of not only the powerful oil industry, it also determines the development of other industries.
The Region is characterized by harsh climatic conditions, 90% of the territory is referred to the Far North areas, or equated to it. Only 3% of the territory is occupied by agricultural lands. More favorable climatic conditions in the south give the possibility for growing grains, potatoes, vegetables, coarse and succulent feed, the presence of large areas of grasslands and pastures creates favorable conditions for dairy cattle breeding. About 80% of agricultural products are manufactured here.
Agricultural companies of autonomous districts specialize in the production of milk, eggs, vegetables grown under glass. The traditional occupations of indigenous peoples of the North, i.e. reindeer breeding and fishing, are developed.
The Tyumen region has a developed transport infrastructure, which enables rapid development of tourism on its territory.
The main air gateway to the region is the international airport "Roshchino" that meets the requirements, which allow to take aircrafts of all types.
Tyumen is connected by regular direct flights to Moscow, St. Petersburg, Samara, Krasnodar, Kiev, Baku, Tashkent, Munich and several other cities of Russia, as well as of CIS countries and beyond.
“UTair” Airlines together with “Transaero” carries out international flights from Tyumen to Frankfurt, Berlin, London, Tel Aviv, Paphos (Cyprus).
From the “Roshchino” airport regular charter flights are carried out to European and Asian countries, organized by travel companies of the region.
Cities of Tyumen, Yalutorovsk, Zavodoukovsk and Ishim are located on the Trans-Siberian Railway. Most of the passing trains make stopovers on the routes linking European Russia with Siberia and Far East. The railway route goes through Tobolsk to the Tyumen Region’s North.
Recently, the active works are carried out in the Tyumen Region on reconstruction and improvement of highways. Along the main “tourist artery” of the region, the highway “Tyumen-Tobolsk” the whole complex of tourist facilities is in the process of construction .
- Holy Trinity Monastery
- memorial houses of the Decembrists M.I. Muraviev-Apostol and I. D. Yakushkin
- Grove of the Decembrists.
- Ilyinsky Monastery
- Abalaksky Monastery
- John-Vvedensky Monastery
- State nature reserve “Tyumensky”
- State nature reserve “Belozersky”
• Alexander Abdulov (1953-2008) - Soviet and Russian film and theater actor, director, Honoured Artist of Russia (1986), People's Artist of Russia (1991)
• Gavriil Batenkov (1793-1863) - a Decembrist, writer
• Boris Grabovsky (1901-1966) - Soviet physicist and inventor (of Ukrainian origin, lived in Central Asia), who is attributed by many researchers an important role in the invention of television
• Alexander Kokorinov (1726-1772) - Russian architect