The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Central Federal District
Area: 25 679 km2
Population: 1 540 384 persons.
Emblem of Tula region
Flag of Tula Region
Tula region - the subject of the Russian Federation
Administrative center - Tula.
Borders with Moscow in the north and northeast, in the east with Ryazan, southeast and south with Lipetsk, south and south-west with Orel, in the west and north-west with the Kaluga region.
Population — 1 553 thousand people (2009).
Early settlement in Tula region is associated with the end of the Paleolithic (about X millennium B.C.), Mesolithic (VIII—VI millennium B.C) and Neolithic (V—III millennium B.C.) parking, as well as settlements of the Bronze Age (III—II millennium B.C. ).
In the early Iron Age (I millennium B.C.) tribes Verkhneokskoy archaeological culture had appeared.
Over time, the aliens from the territory of the river basin Desniy had influenced the development of the local population and formed a new culture to the IV century A.D. «Moshchinskii» (the name given to the post in Kaluga region, which was first excavated mound) -the language of its representatives were in all likelihood, the Baltic States.
The most eastern group of the Belts was engaged in IV-VII centuries A.D. upper basin of the Oka and the upper reaches of the Dnieper in ancient times and was called Golyadyu.
After the Belts, around VIII century A.D., in Tula region came the Slavic tribe Vyatichy. As the golyads, the Vyatichi were good smiths and metallurgists. Archaeologists have discovered items (VIII—X century, mainly in the southern part of settlement of the Slavic ethnic group), where the number of furnaces reaches 25—30. It is clear that at that time there was market sale of iron intermediates. Paleolithic implements are rare (Belevsky district).
Neolithic -(Belevsky culture IV-II millennium B.C. Tula Group -II millennium B.C.) Bronze Age - (Fatyanovo culture). Ancient settlements: Satinsky and Suprutsky - Early Iron Age, І century B.C. and I century A. D. (See map). Suprutsky fort is multilayered: Before Vyatichy in this place lived Golyad. From the Baltics- metallurgists were only slag, from Vyatichy - still bloom. Local blacksmiths posses various products: a tool for working wood and bone tools of hunting, fishing and more. On the mound Suprutsky was found diverse agricultural implements (plow agriculture was a leading Vyatichy).
The Tale of "Beyond Years", states that the name came from the tribes Vyatichy , "Vyatka", who was sitting there with their race. The Vyatichy were engaged in cattle breeding, tillage, knew the craft. The Vyatichy joined the Old Russian state. In the early tenth century (907 years) participated in the march of Prince Oleg at Constantinople, also Prince Svyatoslav march in 964, 966, 981 and 982 years. They fought with the Vyatichy Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich century later (1082—1083) Monomarkh having taught his sons mentioned about his march in Vyatichy. In the XII century there was a city Dedoslavl (presumably modern village Dedilovo of the Kireyevski district) - a fortified craft and trade center, a place of gathering of Vyatichy elders.
Alexin was founded in the XIII century (in 1236 called the city of Metropolitan Peter) on the right high bank of the Oka, on both sides of the river which flows into Mordovka.
Tula was first mentioned in1146, in Nikon's chronicles, describing the campaign of Prince Svyatoslav on the way from Kozelsk to Ryazan. However, at this stage, researchers argue that the first more reliable mention, can be considered a contract between the Moscow Prince Dmitry Donskoy and Ryazan Prince Oleg in 1382.
In 1507, Short Kirill - Beloozersk chronicler informs: "Set on a stone city at Tula". Tula land during the period of fragmentation:after the collapse of a single Old Russian state in the struggle for land Vyatichy came Vladimir-Suzdal and the princes of Chernigov. Negotiations with the Vyatichy elders (tribe, so long preserved remnants of the clan organization of society) led the founder of Moscow, Prince Yuri Dolgoruky. Finally, area of the region goes to the princes of Chernigov. At this time (XII century) begins Christianization of the region. The pagans did not accept the preaching of the monk Kuksha and killed him. Within the boundaries of the Chernigov principality to the middle of the XII century stood out fiefdoms Belevsky, Novosilsky, Odoevsky Tarusa. Tarusa by the end of XIII century belonged to Aleksin. The composition of the same principality included fiefdoms Volkonskaya (from an ancient clan that occurs among other things, the mother of Leo Tolstoy).
A special place in the history of Tula region occupies Kulikov battle. Venev under the name of the village was mentioned in XIV century, but as the city was first mentioned in chronicles in 1494. In 1571 were drafted ancient descriptions of the fortress, which was indicative of a military mission of a fortified settlement.
In 1380, in the southeastern part of today's region, near the confluence of the River Don in Nepryadva, a historic Kulikov battle marked the beginning of the liberation of the Russian lands from the yoke of the Golden Horde. In 1503, Tula lands were attached to the Moscow Grand Duchy.
In XVI - XVII century Tula was an important fortified point on the southern outskirts of Moscow State. At Tula land held Border Zasechnaya trait and were fortified city.
On March 9, 1777 was formed the province of Tula. In the province of Kaluga was appointed Krechetnikov as a governor. On September 19, 1777 formed Tula governorship. In 1796 the governorship was eliminated, the province also survived. At the same time have been developed in Tula samovar production, gingerbread and harmonics.
With the commissioning into service in 1855 Malevsky Mine (south of Bogoroditsk) in the province begins regular production of coal Moscow Basin -the oldest coal mining region of Russia, whose deposits were discovered in 1722 by serfs I. Palicin and M. Titov. Development of industry in the province contributed to the construction of railways of the "Moscow-Kursk" in 1864—1868 and "Syzran-Vyazma" in 1870—1874.
In 1937 was founded Tula region, with developed industry and agriculture.
Districts that are in the area:
In Tula region there are 180 municipalities, including 5 urban county (city of Tula, a city Novomoskovsk, Don city, the industrial community Novogurovsky, village Nice) 23 Municipal district , 40 urban settlements, 112 rural settlements.
In 2008, the city received the status of Novomoskovsk urban district, followed by the accession of all the settlements located in Novomoskovsk district. In 2009, established urban district "Nice town" (formerly known as Tula-50).
Geographical position, natural resources, climate:
The region is situated in the heart of the East European (Russian) Plain, occupying the northeastern part of the Central Russian Upland (height up to 293 m), within the steppe and forest steppe zones. Length of the region from north to south - 200 km from west to east - 190 km.
By the nature of the surface is wavy plain, rugged river valleys, gullies and ravines. There are karst topography - a failure funnels, basins, underground cavities, caves (near Venev) with long strokes, beautiful high grottoes, covered with calcite incrustations. The top point of the surface - 293 meters in the village Raevo of Tyoplo Ogarevsky District (also the highest mark of the Central Russian Upland ), the lowest natural level - 108 meters -located on the banks of the Oka River on the border of Moscow region.
The climate is temperate continental, characterized by moderately cold winters and warm summers. The average annual temperature is +5 ° C (standard deviation of 11 ° C), average January temperature is -10 ° C, July +20 ° C. The period with positive temperatures is 220—225 days. Annual rainfall varies from 575 mm in the northwest to 470 mm in the southeast. In frost-free period falls 70% of precipitation (maximum in July).
The region has three weather stations (Tula, Efremov and oxen) Hydro met.
The structure of industrial production for 2002 year: chemical industry — 23% engineering — 22% food industry — 21% ferrous metallurgy — 15% industry — 10%.
Production of mineral fertilizers
Novomoskovsk joint-stock company "Nitrogen", which is part of the Mineral and Chemical Company EuroChem
The most outstanding representative - the manufacturer of the famous cakes - confectionery "Polyana". Major industry representatives are Tula Bakery (flour and feed), Tovarkovsky (Prodimeks)
Production of ferrous metals full cycle (Tula), domain (Suvorov, Tula), cored and non-ferrous metals (Tula).
In addition, presented construction materials (cement plant under construction with capacity of 2 million tons / year in Novogurovskom) and light (textile, garment) industry.
Agricultural lands occupy 1740 ha (2001), or 68% of the total area of the region. Arable land occupies 1,465 hectares (84% of farmland). In the structure of sown area 54% comes on the grains.
Agriculture the most advanced in the southern part of the forest-steppe region is widespread cultivation of grain (barley, wheat) and fodder crops, sugar beet, meat, dairy and pig farming. In the northern region, dominate dairy and beef cattle breeding, cultivation of fodder crops and potatoes. Foci have developed fruit and berry horticulture.
In 2006, production: milk — 145.9 thousand tons, meat — 57,8 thousand tons, eggs — 523.7 million units.; Grain — 819.0 thousand tons, sugar beet — 316.1 thousand tons , potato — 739.8 thousand tons in the valuation of production was 17.8 billion rubles.
Distance from the center of Tula to the center of Moscow - 185 kilometers. The transport network in the region its developed favorably with the neighboring regions and are second only to the Moscow region.
Automotive Highways of federal importance: M2 "Crimea", M4 Don, a minor portion M6 "Caspian", "Kaluga - Tula - Mikhailov - Ryazan, Kaluga - Przemysl - Belev - Eagle. Main road junctions - the city of Tula, Efremov, Bellevue and Venev. At the beginning of 2010, length of roads - 4,551 km. With asphalt carpet - 3,667 km of roads, cement concrete - 24 km, gravel - 790 km, unpaved - 70 km. The region has a through-passenger links with Moscow, with the centers of the Bryansk, Voronezh, Tambov, Orel, Kursk, Kaluga, Lipetsk, Ryazan region.
Railways: Trunk Moscow - Kiev - Simferopol (via Yasnogorsk, Tula, and Schekino Plavsk), Moscow - Donbass "(via Venev, knots, Bogoroditsk and Efremov, single-track diesel line road" Syzran - Vyazma (via Kimovsk, Donskoy, Tula and Alexin) and a branch of Tula on Sukhinichi (after Suvorov), partial closing line "Sukhinichi - Pervomaisky (via Belev, Arseniev, warm, and oxen, and Kurkino). Also in the vicinity of Novomoskovsk dense network of departmental lines to industrial plants and coal mines, called "Tula node. The biggest locomotive depots in the cities of Tula, Central, Novomoskovsk; smaller in Aleksin, Skuratov, Efremov, Heat, Kulikov field. The total length of railway lines amounts to about 1 thousand km from the centers of municipalities only settlements Odoev, Black and Arkhangelsk do not have direct access to the railway network. Every day between Moscow and Tula runs high-speed passenger train, journey time 2 hours 20 minutes. Water In 1682 the river flows and river, as a constantly flowing, and dries up, the total length of 10,963 km. Most rivers have a length of less than 5 kilometers. They constitute about 77% of the total number of streams. This so-called small river area. For smaller rivers are almost all the rivers of the area, except Oka, Upa, Don and beautiful swords.
Describing the river network of the Tula region, we can conclude the following: All the rivers in the area belong to the plains type. They usually have a steady flow and a small decline. This is because the height difference between the source and the mouths of rivers is negligible. On diet of the river belong to the mixed type: mostly snow with rain and groundwater supplies. For all rivers in the area is characterized by significant seasonal fluctuations in water levels and the uneven flow of the seasons of the year. The most full-flowing rivers are spring, when they give about 75% of annual runoff. In the summer, despite an increase in rainfall, runoff decreases sharply, river meleyut, and the smallest are often quite dry. Most of the rivers originates within its territory, and flows from the central part of the field in different directions, which defines the features of the terrain. River area belong to two swimming pools - pool of the Don and Oka River basin. Pool Oka within the region accounts for 75% of the Tula region, the pool of the Don - 25%. In this south-eastern part of the area irrigated by the upper course of the Don and its tributaries, all the rest of the territory - system of the Oka River.
The region has access to the river network of the European part of Russia, a list of inland waterways included the Oka river from Kaluga, landing in the villages Aleksin Egnyshevka and Behovo. The main transportation in the area of implementing "port Serpukhov: tourist flights along the picturesque routes Serpukhov - Tarusa with many holiday homes, tourist bases and camps, mining and transportation of non-metallic minerals. Air transport Airport Klokova "near Tula, an abandoned military airfield near Ephraim, and several other airports and airfields, including military with unpaved runways. Airfield infrastructure mostly destroyed, the flights are made occasionally.
• Kremlin • Polyana • mud-bath resort Krainka • Kulikovo Field • Museum of the Battle of Kulikovo • Museum-Estate of Russian artist Polenova) • Bogoroditsk with well-known palace and park ensemble of the XVIII century • The system of underground tunnels Guryevsky quarries
• Vyacheslav Vedenin (b. 1941) - Legendary Soviet skier
• Zinaida Gippius (1869-1945) - Russian poet and novelist, dramatist and literary critic, one of the prominent representatives of the "Silver Age" of Russian culture. Gippius, ended DS Merezhkovsky one of the most original and creatively productive marital unions in the history of literature, is considered an ideologue of Russian Symbolism
• Yevgeny Grishin (1931-2005) - an outstanding Soviet speed skater and cyclist less known, four-time Olympic Champion, Honoured Master of Sports (1952)
• Vladimir Zhdanov (1869-1932) - Russian forensic speaker, social activist, lawyer
• Vasily Zhukovsky (1783-1852) - Russian poet and founder of Romanticism in Russian poetry, translator, critic
• Irina Kirillova (b. 1965) - volleyball, cohesive teams of the USSR and Croatia in 2005-2008 - the coach of the women's team in Russia. The best volleyball player of the world (1990). Honored Master of Sports (1988)