The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Central Federal District
Area: 84 201 km2
Population: 1 360 257 persons.
Emblem of Tver region
Flag of Tver region
This land has since the times of the Great Tver principality. The word 'great' has a special status in Russia: it's the symbol of a highest cultural level, of spiritual treasure, of nobleness and valour. It's with those centuries-old traditions that hospitable Tver Krai citizens are nurtured. Maybe that's exactly why the great Russian Volga river heads from here. Great things are attracted to great things. The traveller is given a unique chance to see the place where the tiny spring gives birth to the mighty river. Here one can find deep philosophical meaning that applies to human life is well. You can contemplate it while visiting the famous monasteries: Borisoglebsky, Staritsky of the Holy Trinity, Nilov. It's here that the distinct image of Holy Rus with its moral statutes appears.
You'll get to know the traditions of the Tver land after visiting its open-air museum of architecture and ethnography in Vasilyevo village. The warmth and kindness of this ancient land will stay with you for long; it will lure you to visit this place again and again to find spiritual grace that can help to stave off the vanity of our busy days.
The Tver oblast is– a subject of the Russian Federation
The administrative center is Tver.
Borders with Moscow, Yaroslavl, Vologda, Novgorod, Smolensk and Pskov oblasts.
Was founded onJanuary 29, 1935, until 1990 was called Kalinin Region.
The oblast population is about 1.3 million people.
The districts entering the oblast: 12 cities of oblast subordination and 36 municipal districts.
Settlements at the place of modern Tver existed as far as in Xl-X centuries. Rzhev has been known since XIII century, Toropets was first mentioned in XI. In 1240 the Grand Principality of Tver was established, which became one of the political and cultural centers of Russia. At this time annals were written, unique school of painting, architecture, arts and crafts were established.
In the first half of XlV century the Tver land fought against the Golden Horde (Bartenevskaya Battle, 1317). In the XlV-XV centuries the Tver oblast became a most important trade and craft region, through it a path from Novgorod to Moscow was established. Extensive trade claims of Tver merchants found expression in the famous journey of Afanasy Nikitin to India (1466-1472). .
Tver and the neighboring lands were joined to the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1485 under Ivan III. Many cities of the Tver oblast, as well as Tver itself, were raided by the troops of Ivan IV, and then by the Poles (in 1609).
The region's economy was boostedin the XVIII century in connection with the construction of the road from Moscow to St. Petersburg. The Tver Guberniya was formed in 1775. By the beginning of the XX century the guberniya became an important industrial region of Russia.
On January 29, 1935 the establishment of Kalinin (Tver since 1990) oblast was announced. Significant decline in production after the Civil War was partially repaid in 1930. But even more damage caused to the cities of Tver oblast the Great Patriotic War, when many architectural monuments, factories and enterprises were destroyed. Post-war reconstruction of the oblast was directed primarily at objects of economical significance. In 1980-1990 works on the restoration and study of the monuments of temple architecture, many of which were destroyed during the Soviet era, began.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate:
The Tver oblast is located in the west of the central part of the East European Plain. It stretches for 260 km from the north to the south and for 450 km from the west to the east. The distance from the Moscow ring road to the border of the oblast is 90 km.
The surface is mostly flat; in the west– there are the Valdai Hills, in the east – the Mologo Sheksninskaya lowlands, in the far west - the Ploskoshskaya depression, in the center – the Tver moraine ridge. The top point ("The top of Valdai") is 346.9 m. It is locatednear the village of Pochinok (Firovsky district) , the lowest level - 61 meters – is the Cunya river shore, on the border of the Novgorod oblast.
The region is rich in precious minerals.
The mean January temperature is from - 9 to −17 °C, July temperature is from +17 to +18 °C
Machine building, electric power industry, wood processing, chemial, glass and porcelain as well as light industries.
The Oktyabrskaya railroad that connectst 'the two capitals' goes through the region. It has single-track branches to Rzhev and Vyazma, Kuvshinovo and Selizharovo through Torzhok. Less important are single-track diesel roads Moscow - Kashin - St. Petersburg and Moscow - Riga, as well as Yaroslavl - Bologoe - Velikiye Luki.
Two federal highways cross the oblast: M10 "Rossiya" and M9 "Baltiya". Of the internal roads A111 Torzhok - Ostashkov and A112 Tver – Rzhev are significant . The length of hard-surfaced roads is 16.032 km. There are two civilian airports near Tver: International UUEM (KLD)
'Migalovo' with a runway for cargo aircraft with the length of 2500 m; and the local airlines airport 'Zmeyevo' (now used for helicopters).
Navigation on the Volga is well developed, there is the "Tver" river port with cargo berth for vessels of "river-sea" type with a draft of up to four meters. The oblast is crossed by three railway routes going from Moscow in northern, north-western and western directions: to Saint-Petersburg through Tver - Bologoe (the main route of the Oktyabrskaya Railway), to the west through Rzhev – Velikiye Luki (with branches going to Riga, Vilnius, Kaliningrad and Warsaw - Berlin; to Kimry - Sonkovo - Pestovo - St. Petersburg). The largest railway junction of the Tver oblast is located in Bologoye. Bologovskiy junction includes five directions: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Pskov, Yaroslavl, Velikiye Luki.
Places of interest
· The Volga head
· Nilov monastery
· The church of the Nativity of the Theotokos
· Three-beam symmetry of Tver buildings
· The Tver household museum
· Borisoglebsky monastery
· The estate of Glebovy-Streshnyovy
· The open-air architectural and ethnographical museum in Vasilevo village
· Staritsky Svyato-Uspensky monastery
· A.S. Pushkin museum in Bernovo
· Afanasy Nikitin – a famous traveller of XV century
· Mikhail Tverskoy – a duke (the end of XIII – the beginning of XIV centuries)
· Kazakov Matvey Fyodorovich – a famous Russian architect, lived and worked in Tver
· Rossi Karl Ivanovish – a famous Russian architect, lived and worked in Tver
· Mikhail Yevgrafovich Saltykov-Shchedrin – a Russian writer, was born in the Tver Guberniya, in 1860-1862 served as a vice governor of Tver
· Sergey Yakovlevich Lemeshev – an opera singer, a People's artist of the USSR
· Vladimir Rostislavovich Gardin – an actor, a People's artist of the USSR
· Fyodor Mikhaylovich Novosilsky – an admiral of the Russian fleet, hero of the Battle of Sinop and the Siege of Sevastopol (1854-1855)