The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Far Eastern Federal District
Area: 87 101 km2
Population: 546 500 persons.
Emblem of Sakhalin Oblast
Flag of Sakhalin Oblast
Sakhalin Oblast– is a subject of the Russian Federation.
Administrative center – is the city of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.
The Oblast was established on October 20, 1932.
Population: 546,500 (Census 2010)
The Oblast shares its border with Kamchatka Krai, Khabarovsk Krai and Japan on the sea.
Ancient and Medieval History of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands is full of mysteries. Also the ethnicity population of the islands remains a puzzle until the arrival there of the first Europeans and Japanese. And they appeared on the islands only in the XVII century and met Ainu in the Kuriles and southern Sakhalin, in northern Sakhalin - Nivkhs. Probably already in the central and northern parts of Sakhalin lived Ulta (Orok).
The first European expedition, which was found in the Kuril and Sakhalin coast, was the expedition of Dutch explorer M.G. Vries. Russian explorers have played a huge role in the study of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. At first, in 1646, expedition of V.D. Poyarkov discoveres the northwest coast of Sakhalin, and in 1697, Vladimir Atlasov learns about the existence of the Kuril Islands.
Already in the 10 of XVIII century the process of learning and the gradual accession of the Kuril Islands to the Russian state begin. Russia's success in the development of the Kuril Islands were made possible by enterprise, courage and patience of D.Y. Anciferov, I.P. Kozyrevsky, I.M. Evreinov, F. Luzhin, M.P. Spanberg, W. Walton, D. I. Shabalin and G.I. Shelikhov, and many other Russian scientists-explorers. Simultaneously with the Russian, who moved along the Kuril Islands from the north to the Southern Kuriles and the southernmost of Sakhalin Island the Japanese begin to penetrate. In the second half of the XVIII century the Japanese factories and fishing start to spring up, from the 80 of XVIII century the scientific expedition begins to work.
Special role in Japanese research Mogami Tokunai and Mamiya Rindzo played. At the end of XVlll century French expedition under the command of Jean-F.Laperuza and the British - V.R. Broughton conducted researches off the coast of Sakhalin. The appearance of the theory of the peninsular situation of Sakhalinis connected with their works. The Russian explorer Ivan Krusenstern made the contribute to this theory, who unsuccessfully tried to pass between Sakhalin and the continent in the summer of 1805.
Point in the dispute set G. I. Nevelsky, who in 1849 managed to find a navigable strait between the island and the continent. For discoveries Nevelsky followed the accession of Sakhalin to Russia. On the island Russian military posts and settlements start to spring up one after another.
From the beginning of the XIX century Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands are the subject of the Russian-Japanese territorial dispute. In 1806-180 in South Sakhalin and Iturup Japanese settlement were defeated by Russian sailors. The response to this was the occupation of Russian navigator, V.M. Golovnin by the Japanese in Kunashir. Over the period of the past two centuries, the Russian-Japanese border changed repeatedly.
In 1855, in accordance with the Simodsky contract boundary passed between the islands of Urup and Iturup, Sakhalin was left undivided. In 1875, Russia gave Japan belonged to it northern Kuril Islands, and got instead of it all rights to Sakhalin.
In 1904 the Japanese occupied the island of Sakhalin. After landing on the island, from which evacuated Russian administration, the number of the Russians on the island was reduced from 40 to 6.5 thousand. In 1905, after defeat in the Russian-Japanese war, Russia has only half of Sakhalin Island - north of the 50 the parallel. According to Treaty of Portsmouth southern half of the island was ceded to Japan.
After the partition of Sakhalin, the Japanese started vigorously colonize the southern part of the island. In 1909, in Seaside Government-General the Sakhalin area with the center Alexandrovsk was separated. Russian government took steps to move in Northern Sakhalin.
Researches of the island ran on. There are new details about the natural resources of Sakhalin Islands. Oil explorations have begun in some places. In the area of Okha, oil was discovered by Russians in 80 years of the XIX century.
Russian merchants and industrialists have expressed great interest in developing the natural resources of Sakhalin. The Tsar's administration created an environment in which all attempts to move people and entrepreneurs develop Sakhalin industry remained futile.
In 1920-1925, under the Japanese occupation was the North Sakhalin.
The evening of 22 June, 1941 on the island it was reported about the attack of Nazi Germany on the Soviet Union and the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. And although the North Sakhalin almost the entire war remained deep rear and the people here worked hard to win. Pipeline Okha-Sofiiskoe-on-Amur, which was built during the cold winter of 1941-1942, played an important role in fueling of the Far East and Eastern Siberia. Women replaced men in the workplace. In August, 1945 the Sakhalin turned from deep in the rear in the arena of combat, when Soviet assault troops crossed the border and landed in southern ports. On August 25, fights ended in Sakhalin, and the territory which was lost in 1905, was returned to Russia.
In 1945, when our country as a result of victory in World War II regained the southern part of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, Russian-Japanese border has changed for the last time. After 1945, the southern part of Sakhalin Island with Japan, the Kuriles was returned to Russia, and for some time and Sakhalin and Yuzhno-Sakhalin oblast existed separately.
On January 2, 1947 the United Sakhalin Oblast within the RSFSR was established. In the postwar years, the development of the economy of Sakhalin oblast was directly dependent on the resettlement policy of the Soviet state. The first settlers arrived in June, 1946. Before the oil industry of Sakhalin oblast was faced with new challenges opened up new prospects for further increases in oil and gas. Much attention was paid to the expansion of prospecting and exploration works.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate
Sakhalin oblast is the only region in Russia which is located on islands. It includes the island Sakhalin with neighboring small islands Moneron and Tyuleniy as well as Kuril islands. Sakhalin region is washed by the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan and the Pacific Ocean.
Along the shores of Sakhalin Island the West Sakhalin Mountains (Mount Onor, height up to 1 330 m) and East Sakhalin Mountains (highest point of the island - Mount Lopatin, 1 609 m) stretches, which are separated by Tym-Poronai and Susunayskoy lowlands. Most of the Kuril islands is mountainous (highest point - Alaid Volcano, 2,339 m), there are about 160 volcanoes, 40 of which are active, high seismicity. The region has many lakes, swamps. Main rivers: Tym, Poronai (Sakhalin Island).
The climate is of moderate monsoon type. The average January temperature is from -6 ° C (south) to -24 ° C degrees (north), the average August temperature is from +19 ° C (south) to +10 ° C (north). Within the territory of the oblast sparse larch taiga (northern), forests of the Ayan spruce and Sakhalin fir (in the central part), deciduous forests with lianas (south-west) are widespread; in the mountains - the overgrown stone birch and cedar.
Sakhalin oblast is specialized in fishery and its processing, forest and wood processing, pulp and paper industries.
Oil, gas and coal are mined in the oblast. Main industries are as follows: food, forest and wood processing, pulp and paper, light, fuel, construction materials. Sakhalinsk oblast is the only one in Russia which produces agar.
The leading direction of agriculture – is cattle breeding. Fur farming and reindeer herding are developed. Potatoes, vegetables, forage crops are cultivated.
• Caldera of Volcano
• Volcano Tyatya
• Waterfalls Ptichiy
• Neskuchenskie spring-wells
• Cape Stolbchaty
• Moneron Island
• Kurilsky reserve