The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Central Federal District
Area: 29 777 km2
Population: 1 001 559 persons.
Emblem of Kaluga region
Flag of Kaluga region
Kaluzhskaya oblast is— the subject of the Russian Federation.
Its administrative center is Kaluga.
It was founded- on July 5, 1944.
The population is 1,001,559 people (2010). The population density is 33.5 people. / km (2009 data), the proportion of urban population is 76.1%.
Kaluzhskaya oblast includes 319 municipalities, including 24 municipal districts, two urban districts, 31 urban settlements, 262 rural settlements.
It borders with Moscow, Tula, Bryansk, Smolensk, Oryol region.
The territory of Kaluzhskaya oblast in ancient times was inhabited by the Slavic tribes Vyatichy. During the period of feudal Russia, Kaluga lands became part of the Chernigov principality. The oldest city in the region was Kozelsk (first mentioned 1146). The territory of the principality was devastated during the Mongol-Tatar invasion.
In 1238, on their way for the Mongols, who were returning from Novgorod, was Kozelsk. According to legend, the siege lasted for 7 weeks. Fierce Tatars killed all the inhabitants. They called Kozelsk "wicked city". The first mention of Kaluga refers to 1371. Grand Duke of Lithuania Olgierd Gedeminovich in a letter to the Patriarch of Constantinople Filofey complained about the seizure of a number of cities by Grand Prince Dmitri Ivanovich.
In the XlV-XVI centuries Kaluga was a part of the coastal defense of Muscovy from raids of the Tatars on the rivers Oka and Ugra, referred to as "Belt of the Virgin." In 1480, at the Ugra was a great standing of the armies of Ivan III and Akhmad Khan. It led to the end of the Mongol-Tatar yoke.
In the Troubled Times of the early 17th century in Kaluga were operating units of False Dmitry I and II, the Polish invaders, peasant leader Bolotnikov. Kaluga townspeople participated in the Moscow militia Prince Pozharsky and merchant Minin. In XVll century. At the same time in the XVll- XVlll century in Kaluga region developed craft, art iconography. There appeared the first plants.
In 1715, merchant Demidov has built iron foundry in Dugna , and in 1720 near Kaluga appeared Polotnyany plant. In 1719 was established Kaluga Province that was a part of Moscow province. Kaluga province was founded in 1776.
During the War of 1812 at Maloyaroslavets was stopped retreating from Moscow Napoleon . On October 12 the battle took place, after which the French army was forced to start inglorious retreat along the old Smolensk road. In the 19th century the majority of the population was land-hungry peasants of the province.
Industry was poorly developed. In the 18—19 centuries. in the Kaluga province were exiled former enemies of Russia. Here at the end of the 18th century. lived the last Crimean khan Shagin-Girey, and in 1859-1868 Imam Shamil.
During the Great Patriotic War in the region acted guerrilla and sabotage units, including a unit of D.N. Medvedev.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate
Kaluga Region is located in the middle of the East European Plain, 94 kilometers southwest of Moscow.
The territory of the region located between the Central Russian (with an average height within the region above 200 m and a maximum elevation of 275 m in the southeast region) Smolensk-Moscow hills and the Dnieper-Desninsky province. Center field is Baryatinskiy-Suhinichsky elevation - reworked area of glacial origin. In the western part of the area within the glacial plains stands Spas-Demenskoy chain of mountains. It is located south of the elevated plain, part of the Bryansk-Zhizdrinsky woodlands, the average height of which is 200 m.
The lowest point in Kaluzhskaya oblast is 108 m and is located on the border with Tula and Moscow Region on the bank of merging Protva and Oka.
The highest point is 279 m near the Spas-Demenskaya chain near the village of Dolgoye. Subsoil riches contain significant reserves of fire-resistant and refractory clay (total reserves are 220 million m³), stocks of materials for glass production -11,6 million tons.
Are discovered deposits of brown coal in Moscow coal. The region is provided with stocks of non-metallic building materials, mineral paints and mineral waters. The climate is characterized by distinct seasons of the year: moderately hot and humid summers and moderately cold winters with stable snow cover.
The average July temperature is +18 ° C, January -9 ° C. Warm period (with a positive daily average temperature) lasts for 215—220 days.
On rainfall in Kaluga region can be attributed to the zone of sufficient moisture. Distribution of precipitation is uneven. Their number varies from 780 to 826 mm in the north and west to 690—760 mm in the south. A special feature of the climate are frequent spring frosts, and the alternation of hot, dry and cool wet summer, which determines the risky nature of agriculture in the region.
The basis of the water system is the river Oka, but there are other important large rivers - Ugra, Zhizdra, Bolva, Protva, Vorya, Ressa, Shanya, Yachenka. In the area there are 19 reservoirs.
The number of lakes in the area is small, among them there is a lake Bezdonnoe, Svyatoye, Galkino, Bezymyannoe, Sosnovoe (Baryatinsky, Dzerzhinsky, Yukhnovsky, Kozelsky Zhizdrinsky areas).
In the region there are about 500 peat bogs. Bogs are concentrated mainly in the north and west of the region. The largest swamps are Ignatovskaya, Kalugovskoe, Krasnikovsky, Shatino.
In the forest fund dominates deciduous types of trees (birch and aspen). In the south-east of the region there is a large array of broad-leaved forests – Orlovsko-Kaluzhskoe forest area.
The region has developed various kinds of machine-building industries, including automobile production (Volkswagen Group Rus, LLC, Volvo Vostok Ltd, PSMA Rus), rail locomotives (JSC Lyudinovsky Locomotive Works), other rolling stock (Kaluga plant Remput'mash, Kalugaputmash, JSC), turbines (Kaluga Turbine Plant, TV ("Samsung Electronics Rus Kaluga", Ltd), metal constructions (Ruukki Rus,LLC Agrisovgaz, LLC) etc. The greatest influence on the development of machine-building complex of Kaluga region renders the creation of new enterprises in industrial parks and industrial zones. Formation of auto cluster in the region, along with the production of vehicles will provide increased production of automotive components, increase business and service organizations to repair cars. Food industry is represented by the production of beer (LLC SABMiller Rus), meat (Kaluga meat, LLC Invest Alliance , wine (Detchinsky plant, JSC), dairy products (Obninsk Dairy Plant - a branch of JSC Wimm-Bill-Dann Foods OJSC, MosMedynAgroprom "), etc.
In addition to production of timber industry complex (paper, cardboard container, chipboard and fibreboard, batch plaque) in the region are produced building materials (brick, ceramic sanitary ware, reinforced concrete structures), rubber and plastic products (pipes and profiles), chemical products ( pharmaceuticals, plastics) and textile (men's, special clothing). At the heart of the regional energy sector are produced electricity, gas and water. A promising direction in the development of industrial complex of the Kaluga region is the production of pharmaceutical products. An effectively operating chain to develop and implement the finished products of biotechnology - from scientific research and development, clinical trials of new substances and medicines to industrial production of the finished product - finished dosage forms allowed to start forming a cluster of biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. The overall result of the implementation of measures for cluster formation would be to create an effective system of support and promotion of high-tech, innovative projects from the inception of scientific ideas to the organization of serial production.
Characterized by focus on dairy and beef cattle, potatoes, forestry, peri-urban vegetable farming, cultivation of feed grains and flax.
The main transport hubs in the region are Kaluga, Obninsk Sukhinichi. The main highway is the M3 "Ukraine", with traffic up to 13,800 vehicles / day passing through town Balabanovo, Obninsk, near Maloyaroslavets, Kaluga, and the city Sukhinichi Zhizdra. Is important, and the federal highway A101 Moscow - Warsaw ("Old Polish", "Varshavka), with traffic up to 11,500 vehicles / day passing through the Belousov, Obninsk, Maloyaroslavets, Medyn, Yukhnov about Spas-Demenskoj. In addition there is a regional importance road R132 Vyazma - Kaluga - Tula - Ryazan in traffic to 6,750 vehicles / day and the site A108 "IBC" is passing through town Balabanovo. The length of roads paved is 6,564 km. Density of public roads paved - 165 km to 1,000 km ². Main Railway Line is - Moscow - Kiev, passing through Balabanovo, Obninsk, Maloyaroslavets, Sukhinichi. Also important in single-track diesel line Vyazma - Kaluga - Tula (via Myatlev, linen factory, Pyatovsky and Kaluga) Sukhinichi - Smolensk (by Christ-Demenskoj) Sukhinichi - Roslavl (through the Kirov), Sukhinichi - Tula (via Kozelsk) Kozelsk - Belev, Vyazma - Bryansk (through the Kirov and Lyudinovo) and Bryansk branch - Dudorovsky. In Kaluga, placed a large locomotive and railcar depot. The length of railways for general use is 872 km. The density of public roads is 29 km to 1000 km ². In the area there are 4 airfields, one of them is a civilian - an airfield near Kaluga Grabtsevo (closed in 2008), military in Ermolino and large military airfield Shaykovka. The list of Russian inland waterways including a section of the flow Okie from Kaluga, on the river made trips, organized excursions through Serpukhov - Tarusa, Serpukhov - Velegozh, besides there are two ships "Luch" organized in line Kaluga - Alexin. The length of the shipping and conditionally navigable inland waterways is 101 km. In the inter-provincial passenger transport is of particular importance Amtrak Express Moscow - Kaluga (three departure day, travel time: 2 hours 40 minutes). Urban transport is notable for its Kaluga trolleybus system.
• Tikhonov's Wasteland
• Optin Wasteland
• Pafnutiev Borovsky Monastery
• Nicholas Chernoostrovsky Monastery
• Kaluga Regional Museum
• The State Museum of Space Tsiolkovsky
• Museum of Tsiolkovsky
• Museum of crafts, architecture and life
• Kaluga Regional Art Museum
• Museum of A.L.Chizhevsky
• Regional Art Gallery "Obraz"
• Church of St. Nicholas on Kozynka
• House of Obolensky
• Georgy Zhukov (1896-1974) - Soviet military leader, Marshal of the Soviet Union (since 1943)
• Alexandra Prokoshina (1918-2005) - singer, People's Artist of USSR (1979)
• Michael Yanshin (1902-1976) - Soviet actor, director, People's Artist of USSR (1955)
• Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) - scientist, the founder of modern astronautics (he lived and worked in Kaluga, from 1892 to 1935)
• Bulat Okudzhava (1924-1997) - poet, songwriter, novelist, screenwriter
• Marina Mnishek (c. 1588-1614) - wife of False Dmitry I, crowned as the Russian empress
• False Dmitry II - an imposter pretending to be son of Ivan the Terrible, Tsarevich Dmitry