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Khabarovsk region

Khabarov regionThe Amur bankKhabarobsk regionKhabarovsk region

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Khabarovsk Territory

Federal District: The Far Eastern Federal District

Area: 788 600 km2
Population: 1 405 000 persons.

 Emblem of Khabarovsk region
Emblem of Khabarovsk region

Flag of Khabarovsk region
Flag of Khabarovsk region



Description

Khabarovsk Krai is a subject of the Russian Federation .

Administrative center – Khabarovsk

Total area: 788.6 thousand square km.

It shares borders with the following regions: Primorsky Krai, the Jewish Autonomous region, Amur, Magadan, Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The region is home to about 1.5 million people. The urban population is 80%.

Population density - 2 people per 1 sq. km. The ethnic structure is predominantly Russian (86%), and the rest are Tatars and 25 other small ethnic groups of the North.

In Khabarovsk region there are 17 administrative districts, 7 cities, 31 smaller towns and 534 rural settlements.

History

The development of the Far Eastern territories begins in the XVII century. Russians first came to the East to explore “new earth” to make into sovereign territories and to establish trade relations. In 1639 a group of Tomsk Cossacks, headed by Ivan Yurevich Moskvitin went as far as the Sea of Okhotsk. At the mouth of the river they founded the first fortress in the region. From here the Cossacks investigated the coastline and collected the first data on the Amur region. In 1643 in search of uncharted Daurskaya Land (the so-called “Western Amuria”) Yakut province sent a detachment of 132 Cossacks under the leadership of Vasily Danilovich Poyarkov on a great expedition to cross the Aldan tributary of the Lena River basin. From there they moved to the river basins of Zeya and Gonama. A part of the expedition spent the winter there, but Poyarkov ventured further. In the spring of the following year, going down to Zea, they reached the Amur River. Poyarkov wrote a fairly comprehensive description of the river, the local economy and the life of the people. From the lower reaches of the Amur, Poyarkov took a boat into the stormy Sea of Okhotsk and reached the estuary of the river Ulya. From there he returned to Yakutsk. His information about the riches of the Amur awakened interest among early Siberian industrialists. The Vologda peasant Erofei Khabarov followed Poyarkov with his detachment of 100 men to the Amur in 1650. They took another way, sailing down the Lena River, then along its tributary Olekma eventually arriving at the source and going further, on foot, to the Amur. A part of his unit remained in the daursky town of Albazino to fortify it. Around the time of the construction of new settlements, new crafts and trades emerged. In 1682 it became a part of the Russian state known as Apbazinskoe military province. Later Albazin was abandoned after a long siege, and according to the Nerchinsk treaty Russians left the Amur in 1689 for nearly half a century. In the middle of the XIX century. Russia made the most important discoveries in the Far East – the expedition of Gennady Ivanovich Nevelskoy (1849-1855). The expedition demonstrated the potential of the mouth of the Amur River to harbour naval vessels, but eventually he found that Sakhalin was, in fact, an island. In 1850 at the mouth of the river Amur Nevelskoy founded the first military post – Nicholaevskiy. Between 1854 and 1857, the so-called “Amur River Scouting” was organized by governor-general N.N. Muraviev. The reason for this was the Crimean War (1853-1856), during which the Anglo-French fleet tried to seize Petropavlovsk and other Russian settlements on the Pacific coast. The path along the Amur was the shortest and most reliable to move the settlers and troops to protect the eastern lands of Russia. The “Amur River Scouting” gave the impetus for the development of permanent settlement in the region. Even today the names of these pioneers are not forgotten. Geographical location, natural resources, climate. Khabarovsk Kray occupies an area of 787 thousand square kilometers, accounting for 4.5 per cent of Russia. The territory stretches from north to south nearly 1,800 kilometer and from west to east for 125 - 750 kilometers. It has a sea border with the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan at the Tatar Strait. The length of coastline (including islands, the largest of which is the Shantarskie archipelago) is 3390 km. The region is bordered by China and about three-quarters of the province is covered by mountains and plateaus, with elevations ranging from 500 to 2500 meters. The largest plains are located on both sides of the Amur River on the swampy Sredneamurskaya plain. Climate of the region is monsoon. It is characterized by cold winters and humid hot summers. Climatic conditions vary considerably both from north to south, and depending on the proximity to the sea, as well as on the nature of the terrain. The average January temperature ranges from -22°C in continental areas of the south to -40°C in the north and on the coast from -18°C degrees to -24°C. The average temperature in July in the south is 20° C and in the north is 15°C. The growing season (with temperatures of 5°C or higher) lasts for 170 - 177 days in the southern regions or up to 130 days in the north. Annual precipitation is 400 - 600 millimeters in the north and in the southern part about 600 – 800 mm on the plains and the eastern slopes. In the mountains. it reaches over 1,000 millimeters.

Industry

Khabarovskiy Krai is one of the most industrialized areas of the Far East. The region produces over a quarter of all industrial production in the regions of the Far East. The share of industry production in gross regional product is more than 30%. The main industries are engineering and metal, electric power, ferrous metallurgy and the fuel industry. It excels in: the accumulation of production, science and technology, human resources. The leading industries of the region are: machinery and equipment manufacturing, chemical manufacturing, transport, production of electrical and electronic equipment, basic metals and fabricated metal products. It has sufficiently developed a system for the use of its natural resources. The main industries are: the mining of raw materials for base and precious metals, precious stones, logging, mining and the production of seafood. The leading industrial holdings in the region are:

• “Komsomolsk-na-Amur” Aircraft Production Association in the name of Y. Gagarin PLC.

• The Amur Cable factory.

• Dalkhimpharm pharmaceuticals.

• "Komsomolsk-na-Amur Crane company" PLC.

• Dalenergomash. Energy company.

Agriculture

Agriculture in the region comes in many different forms of ownership. Enterprises specialize mainly in crop and livestock production.

Transport

Among the transport networks of Khabarovskiy Kray are: a network of railways of a total length of 2.3 thousand km, including one-way access to the sea; federal highways (Khabarovsk - Nakhodka and Khabarovsk - Vladivostok, Chita - Khabarovsk), as well as regional highways linking the capital of Dalnevostochniy Federalniy Okrug (DFO) with regional cities and towns. There are more than 3.2 thousand km of waterways (rivers Amur, Ussuri, Amgun, Tunguska, Maya), which provide access to the coast and the Asia-Pacific border countries via river ports and wharves, including the largest, Khabarovsk and Komsomolsk-na-Amure, in the bays of Vanina and Sovetskaya Gavan. The main airports are Khabarovsk international airport and 37 other domestic airports with local airlines. The largest transportation hub of Khabarovskiy Kray is the Khabarovskiy city.

Things to do

• Khabarovsk regional theater of drama.

• The Regional Theatre of Musical Comedy.

• The Exhibition Hall of Fedotov.

• The House of Folk Art.

• Far Eastern Art Museum.

• Khabarovskiy Kraiy Local Lore Museum in the name of N.I. Grodekov.

• Church of St. Innokentiya of Irkutsk.

• Svyato-Preobrajenskiy Cathedral.

• “Yuri Gagarin” central city park.

Famous residents

• Evgeni Plushenko - Olympic champion in figure skating.

• Yuri Chaika - Attorney-General of the Russian Federation.

• Stepanova, Angelina Iosifovna (1905-2000) - theater and film actress, People's Artist of USSR (1960).

• Julia Chepalova – multiple-time Olympic champion in skiing.

• Gennadiy Dmitrievich Tsygankov (August 16, 1947 - February 16, 2006) – Soviet hockey player and coach, Honored Master of Sports of the USSR (1972).