Republic of Khakassia
The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Republic of Khakassia
Federal District: The Siberian Federal District
Area: 61 569 km2
Population: 538 054 persons.
Emblem of the Republic of of Khakassia
Flag of the Republic of Khakassia
Republic of Khakassia — the subject of the Russian Federation
Capital — the city of Abakan.
The Republic was founded in 1992.
It borders with the Kemerovo Oblast, Krasnoyarsk Krai, the Republic of Tuva and the Republic of Altai.
The population of the Republic of Khakassia — 538,054 people (2009), population density — 8.7 persons per km ², the proportion of urban population — 71,1%.
The Republic of Khakassia includes the following areas:
5 republican cities, 8 districts, 271 settlements.
3000—2000 years BC tribes of the Afanasiev culture lived on the territory of Khakassia. Main activities: animal husbandry, hunting, etc. 1000 AC the Finno-Ugric, Turkic tribes came here. The offshoot of the Silk Road passed through Khakassia. In 6—13th centuries there was early feudal state Kyrgyz Khaganate. Presumably, written language in the basin of the higher part of the stream of the Yenisei River (including Khakassia) existed up to the Mongol invasion. In the 13th century Kyrgyz Khaganate was conquered by Genghis Khan. In the 17th century four feudal uluses (principalities) Altysarsky, Altyrsky, Jeziorski and Tubinsky were formed.
In the 18th century the Russian colonization began. In the early 18th century Abakan (1707) and Sayan (1718) forts were built by the Decree of Peter I in Khakassia. Under the Kyakhtinsky treaty (1727) with China Khakassia finally became part of Russia. The region began to develop industry. In 1740 the Lugansky copper works and the Irbinsky iron-making plant were built, minerals were mined(iron, copper, gold).
In 1860 there were 127 mines on the territory of the Minusinsky and Achinsky districts. In the first quarter of the 19th century the territory of Khakassia was settled by Russian colonists. In Khakass farms cattle-breeding dominated. Hunting grounds made their living by trapping, kept some cattle and from time to time sowed grains. In all cattle-breeding farms herd horse-breeding ranked first in the herd structure. The Russians mostly settled in cities, worked in factories, and were engaged in farming.
In Soviet times industry, mining and quarrying were being actively developed. The largest in Russia the Sayan aluminum plant and the Sayan-Shushenskaya hydro power station were built.
On the 20th of October, 1930 an autonomous oblast of Khakassia was formed, until 1991 — as a part of the Krasnoyarsk Krai. From July, 1991 — the Khakass SSR, from February, 1992 — the Republic of Khakassia as the part of the Russian Federation. In 1995 the constitution of Khakassia was adopted.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate
Khakassia differs from other Russian regions by certain climate, a kind of original relief, unique flora and fauna, which give these places unique colour that attracts fans of active tourism and people, looking for fresh impressions of their travels.
The Republic of Khakassia is located in the southwestern part of Eastern Siberia on the left bank of the Yenisei River basin, on the territories of the Sayan-Altai highlands and the Khakass-Minusinsk Basin.
Variety of climate and vegetation zones — from the high mountains with year-round snow and glaciers, tundra, forests and steppes to the steppes with ancient burial ground — is typical for the republic.
The climate is continental with dry hot summers and cold winter with little snow. The average temperature in July is +17,9 °C, in January - 18,9 °C. Amount of sunny days in the country is significantly higher than in neighboring regions.
Steppes, mountains and taiga dominate in the relief of the territory. The Sayan Mountains, the height of which sometimes exceeds 2000 m, cover two-thirds of the territory of the republic.
The largest rivers of Khakassia are Yenisei, Abakan, Chulym and Tom. The republic has more than 500 lakes, rivers and small streams. The total length of rivers is 8 thousand km.
The basis of the entire region's economy — hydropower industry and aluminum production that technologically connected with each other. In the power system of Khakassia include: the Sayan-Shushenskaya hydro power station (included in the Yenisei cascade of the hydro power station, the most powerful in Russia — 6400 MW) and the Mainsky hydro power station.
Also coal is mined in the region. Enterprises of nonferrous metallurgy operate.
Landscape diversity, availability of natural pastures and forest natural resources give an opportunity to develop various agricultural productions on the territory of the republic.
The main agricultural specialization of the region — dairy and meat cattle-breeding.
Main crops: corn, potatoes, field vegetables.
The main products of livestock: cattle and poultry for slaughter
There are automobile, railway, air and water (river) transport in the transport system of Khakassia. Remoteness of the Republic of Khakassia from main economical centers of the country, necessity of long distances overcoming conditioned development of the transport system in the republic. Main destination of the transport branch is cargo and passenger traffics.
There are a large railway junction (Abakan station), airports (Abakan city), river port (Abakan city) in the Republic of Khakassia. There are such railway mains on the territory of the Republic of Khakassia, as Abakan – Taishet, Abakan – Achinsk, Abakan – Novokuznetsk.
- The Khakassky National Park
- Oglakhtinskaya fFrtress
- Lake Shira
- Topiarnyh Art Park in Abakan
- The Sayan-Shushenskaya Hydro Power Station
- Nickolay Catanov (1862 – 1922) — a philologist, ethnographer.
- Semen Kadyshev (1885 – 1977) — a People's narrator.
- Yuri Kuznetsov — an actor.
- Stepan Maynagashev — an ethnographer, educator.