Republic of Udmurtia
The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Privolzhsky Federal District
Area: 42 061 km2
Population: 1 526 304 persons.
Emblem of the Republic of Udmurtia
Flag of the Republic of of Udmurtia
The Udmurt Republic — is the subject of the Russian Federation.
The capital city of the region — Izhevsk.
Founded on November 4, 1920.
The Republic shares its border with Kirov oblast in the north and west, with Perm Krai in the east, with Bashkortostan and Tatarstan in the south.
Population in 2010 was 1,526,304 (according to 2002 census — 1,570,316). Population density — 36, 3 / km², proportion of urban population - 67,8%.
Administrative-territorial division of the Udmurt Republic is governed by the constitution of the Udmurt Republic.
At the present time in the Udmurt Republic there are 5 cities of republican subordination and 25 municipal areas, 11 settlements of urban type, 2119 rural settlements.
The most ancient archeological monuments are the evidences of Udmurtia territory being inhabited in Mesolithic epoch (8,000-5,000 B.C.). In later archeological periods ancient Finno-Ugric population was differentiating in western Urals. In early iron period Ananyinskaya cultural and historical community was formed in the Kama area. These were the ancestors of the Perm people - the Udmurts and the Komis.
In the X century the ancient Udmurts were joined to the first state in the lower Kama area - Volzhskaya Bulgaria. It was a great influence on the Udmurts. From XIII century the southern Udmurts were influenced by the Golden Horde and later Kazan khanate. The site of ancient settlement Idnakar was the largest trade, cultural and administrative center of the northern Udmurts retaining their independence.
The first Russian settlements came into being on the Vyatka River in the XII-XIII centuries. The northern territory of Udmurtia became the part of the Russian state being formed. By 1557 after Ivan the Terrible conquered Kazan the process of joining the Udmurts to the Russian state was over. Till the mid of XVIII century the population of Udmurtia was busy preferably in agriculture and handicrafts. In 1756 the first plant was constructed - Bemyzhsky copper-melting, later iron-producing ones - Pudemsky and Votkinsky (1759), Izhevsky (1760) and Kambarsky (1761).
The industry and culture of the region rapidly developed in the second half of XIX century. Private factories, workshops, banks, gymnasiums, schools, theatres and libraries were opened. The plants of the region exhibited their product at the large Russian and foreign exhibitions. In 1899 railways Perm-Kotlas and Kazan-Yekaterinburg crossed the northern part of Udmurtia and in early 20th century - the southern part. These railways played a considerable part in economic development of the region. Before the Great October Socialist Revolution the territory of Udmurtia was a part of Kazan and Vyatskaya gubernias.
Votskaya Autonomous oblast was formed on November 4th, 1920. On January 1st, 1932, it was renamed into Udmurtskaya Autonomous oblast. Votskaya Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was formed on December 28th, 1934. Due to its favorable geological and political location Udmurtia turned into a large military and industrial center of the country in 20th century. During the World War II about 40 plants were evacuated to Udmurtia. National and state structure of the region and its defense-oriented industry continue to greatly determine historical, social, economic and cultural peculiarity of Udmurt Republic.
Geographical Position, Natural Resources, Climate
Udmurtia is located on east of the Russian Plain, in the European Urals, between the Kama and its right tributary of the Vyatka. The Republic is located in the middle latitudes, in the area with inner continental climate with calm summers and cold snowy winters. The coldest month is January, the average temperature is - 9, 9 °C. The warmest month is July, with the average temperature of the month + 20,9 °C.
The main natural resources are wood and oil. About 113 deposits of oil were discovered in the territory of the Republic.
Forests cover over 50% of the republic's territory. Most of the forests are coniferous.
The Republic disposes deposits of bog muck and nitro metan minefields, building materials (such as silica send, loam, limestones).
The land riches in springs and therapeutic muds.
The main industries — are engineering, metalworking, ferrous metallurgy and wood processing industries, world-wide production of hunting and sporting guns. Logging is carried out in northern and western areas of the country, the wood produced in the form of lumber, manufactured furniture and house-building construction.
Agricultural lands occupy 50% of the republic. Cattle, pigs, sheep and pountry breeding are dominated in animal breeding. Rye, wheat, buckwheat, barley, oats, millet, peas, corn, sunflower, flax, canola, potatoes, vegetables and fodder crops are under cultivation.
Federal roads cross the territory of the republic: P242, P320, P321, P322.
The only airport of Udmurtia republic is located in Izhevsk. Air traffic is carried out OAO Izhavia, which makes regular transportation of passengers on 14 airways.
Railway transportation is the leading one in providing interregional links of the region. Railway delivers the main part of freight and passengers. Major directions: “Kazan – Agryz -Ekaterinburg”, “Kirov – Balezino - Perm”, “Balezino – Izhevsk - Alnashi”, “Izhevsk - Votkinsk”, “Lyukshudya - Kilmez”.
• National Park "Nechkinsky" , located on the shores of the River Cam
• Natural Park "Sharkan" (Sharkansky district)
• Natural Park "Ust-Belsk" (Karakulinsky district)
• State natural reserve "Kokmansky"
• State natural botanical reserve "Andreevskypine forest"
• Tchaikovsky, Pyotr (1840—1893) — Russian composer, conductor, teacher, musical-social activist, a music journalist
• Zhakov, Oleg (1905—1988) — film actor, People's Artist of USSR (1969)
• Knipper-Chekhov, Olga (1868—1959) — film and stage actress, People's Artist of USSR (1937)