The Republic of Tatarstan
The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Republic of Tatarstan
Federal District: The Privolzhsky Federal District
Area: 67 847 km2
Population: 3751,6 persons.
Emblem of The Republic of Tatarstan
Flag of The Republic of Tatarstan
The traveller falls in love with Tatarstan without even noticing it, with the first steps he makes upon this ancient land, filled with history and legends. Everyone who has already visited Tatarstan can't fail to notice the special hospitality of this land, whose inhabitants greet you with their speciality called Çäkçäk. And, of course, you'll be amazed by the beauty of Kazan.
You should definitely visit, among other famous sightseeing places, the kremlin ensemble with the Annunciation cathedral (it's included into the UNESCO World Heritage list), the adjacent Qolsharif mosque and the Soyembika falling tower, Saints Peter and Paul (Petropavlovsky) cathedral build to honour Peter the Great's visit to the city, the first stone Marjani mosque, the Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross that preserves the history of the famous icon of Our Lady of Kazan.
One feels like walking through this city, enjoying a certain festive mood that fills houses, squares and romantic parks.
Every traveller coming into the Republic is sure to meet Bolgar – a sacred place of Tatarstan inhabitants and Muslims from all over the world, the city of Muslim pilgrimage for those wishing to undertake an umrah to their sacred places. It's here that Islam was accepted in 922.
At the place where Sviyaga meets Volga stands like a fairytale that came alive, an island town of Sviyazhsk. It was built by Ivan the Terrible in four weeks to serve as an outpost for conquering Kazan. It became the first Orthodox town in this area, the centre from where the Christianity spread out. The small ancient (1000 years old) Yelabuga settles cosily at the Kama river bank, surrounded by woods that were painted by I. Shishkin, a famous Russian landscape artist. The Yelabuga land became the last home for Marina Tsvetayeva.
Not far from Kazan stands the Raifsky cloister of Our Lady. It was founded in 1661. Here stays one of the Orthodox relics – a wonderworking icon of Our Lady of Georgia.
At a 150 km distance from Kazan the capital of the ancient Volga Bulgaria, the “Great City” Bilyar is situated. By the well called “The holy spring” a spiritual-religious complex, where representatives of every confession may rest and pray, is situated. The complex includes a holy stone worship that lies at the peak of a high mull.
Chistopol is situated 144 km away from Kazan. It was founded in XVIII century and managed to preserve the architectonical originality of an ancient province town. Here one can visit the memorial museum of poet B. Pasternak. Tourists are attracted to Tatarstan not only by historical monuments, but also by its magnificent nature.
There are about 80 eco-tourism objects in the republic as well as perfect conditions for hunting and fishing, resting and healing. Here you can take up active ways of rest: the Kamsky mines are of great interest for rock climbers and potholers; a great scope of rivers and lakes invite those who like yachting and rating. You'll be also impressed by modern mountain skiing complexes “Kazan” and “Yan”.
If you are very lucky, you'll manage to come to Sabantuy – the most favourite holiday of the natives. It's celebrated in June on the occasion of finishing spring field works. The guests take part in merry competitions, get acquainted with folk epos and ancient customs. In villages one can join celebrating Tatar wedding, taste local specialities and experience first-hand the hospitality of the Tatars.
Another local holiday is also immensely popular. Folk music groups and lots of tourists come here for Karavon (celebrated in May). They dance in a ring, singing old songs.
Come to Tatarstan and discover this ancient and ever young land, that invites you to come back and learn something new about it again and again.
The Republic of Tatarstan — is a Russian Federation territorial subject.
The capital is Kazan.
Was established by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and Council of People's Commissars decree dated May 27, 1920 as the autonomous Tatar Socialist Soviet Republic.
Borders with Kirov, Ulyanov, Samara, and Orenburg oblasts as well as Bashkortostan, Mari El, Udmutria and Chuvashia.
The population comprises about 3.8 million people.
The administrative division: 43 municipal districts, 19 cities with 11 being of republican subordination: Kazan, Yelabuga, Leninogorsk, Zelenodolsk, Zainsk, Aznakayevo, Naberezhnye Chelny, Almetyevsk, Chistopol, Nizhnekamsk, Bugulma.
The colonization of the territory which is now the Republic of Tatarstan began in paleolith (about 100 000 years ago).
The first state that appeared in this region was Volga Bulgaria, created at the turn of X century BC by Turkic tribes that had already had some experience in statesmanship in the Turkic Khaganate, the Hunn empire and Old Great Bulgaria.
Bulgaria for a long time was the only developed state formation in the north-west of Europe. In 922 the state embraced Islam as the established religion.
Bulgaria played an important role in the life of the natives. The country was the first to found iron. Besides metallurgy they also developed jewellery, leather goods industry, culture, science and education. The unity of the country, its permanent forces and well-established intelligence service allowed it to resist Mongol invaders. It was only during the fourth attempt (undertaken in 1236) that the Mongols overpowered the Bulgar resistance, but even after that it took a huge garrison to master the rebellious land.
Bulgaria entered the empire of Genghis Khan and later became a part of the Golden Horde. When the Horde broke up, a new feudal state appeared within the territory of the land. It was the Khanate of Kazan (1438). After Kazan was captured by Ivan the Terrible's army the Khanate ceased to be and was added to the Russian state.
Later Kazan became one of the most important industrial and cultural centres in Russia. In 1708 the territory of the present-day Tatarstan becomes a part of the enourmous Kazan guberniya, which originally bordered on Kostroma in the north, the Urals in the east, Murom and Penza in the west; the southern border went by the Terek river. Kazan preserved the status of guberniya capital for more than 200 years.
An important step for recreating the Tatar national identity was proclamation of the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1920.
The end of the 20th century was the time of new opportunities to develop Tatarstan statesmanship. On August 30, 1990 the Declaration of Sovereignty of the republic was adopted and signed. The referendum held in 1992 and the constitution of the Tatarstan Republic that was approved on November 6, 1992 established, according to the expression of popular will, a new statehood of the republic.
On February 15, 1994 a Treaty between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan was signed that dealt with “Competences differentiation and mutual delegation of authorities between the Russian Federation bodies of state authority and the Republic of Tatarstan bodies of state authority”. This treaty, together with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan served as a legal foundation for the widely known Russian-Tatar mutual relations model.
On June 26, 2007 a Treaty on competences differentiation and mutual delegation of authorities between the Russian Federation bodies of state authority and the Republic of Tatarstan bodies of state authority, that became a sort of a successor for the 1994 Treaty. The 2007 Treaty secured the present status of the Republic of Tatarstan, recognizing the Tatarstan Constitution as the basis of the Republic statehood. According to the Treaty, a candidate for presidency in Tatarstan is required to know two state language. In the same document the level of the Republic international relations and the necessity of working with compatriots are acknowledged.
Geographical position, natural resources, climate
Tatarstan is situated in the central part of the Russian Federation on the East European Plain, at the confluence of two large rivers – the Volga and the Kama.
The territory of the republic is represented by a plain in the forest and the forest-steppe zone with moderate side-hills at the right Volga bank and in the south-east of the republic. 90% of the territory is situated the altitude not exceeding 200 metres above sea level.
More than 16% of the territory are covered with woods, mostly deciduous (oak, linden, birch, aspen); conifers are represented by spruce and pine trees. Local fauna consists of 430 vertebrata species and hundreds of different invertebrata species.
The climate is moderately continental with occasional droughts. The average January temperature (the coldest month) is -14 C, the average July temperature (the warmest month) +19. The average precipitation is between 460 and 520 mm.
The industrial profile of the republic is determined by fuel-producing as well as oil and gas industries (oil extraction, collastic, tyre, polyethylene and a wide range of oil products processing), major machine builers that produce competitive products (heavy-duty trucks, helicopters, aeroplanes and aircraft engines, compression pulsers, oil and gas delivery equipment, river and sea vessels, a line of light motor vehicles) as well as advanced electrical and radio instrumentation.
Cultivated lands comprise 61% of the total Republic lands. Plant growing (grain, sugar beet, potato) and dual-purpose cattle breeding as well as poultry and horse breeding and beekeeping are developed.
The Republic of Tatarstan possesses a developed transport network. Its basis is formed by highways, railways, four navigable waterways – the Volga, the Kama, the Vyatka and the Belaya and airlines.
The main junction points are Kazan, Agryz, Zelenodolsk, Bugulma, Naberezhnye Chelny. The transcontinental passage “Western Europe – Western China” goes through Kazan.
Major cities of the republic are connected through regular air traffic to 70 Russian cities and far-abroad countries.
Types of tourism
· Cultural and educational
Places of interest
· The Kazan Kremlin ensemble
· The Peter and Paul cathedral
· The Marjani mosque
· Kazan (Volga region) Federal university
· The island city Sviyazhsk
· the Raifsky cloister of Our Lady
· Gabdulla Tuqay – an outstanding Tatar national poet, a literature critic, publicist and translator
· Shihabetdin Marjani – a Tatar theologian, a sheik of Naqshbandi order, a philosopher, a historian, an enlightener.
· Qayum Nasıri — a great Tatar ethnographer, a man of letters and an enlightener of the XIX century.
· Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin – a Russian landscape artist, a painter, drawing artist and an engraver and aquafortist.
· Aleksandr Mikhailovich Butlerov – a Russian chemist, the creator of the chemical composition theory, the founder of “Butlerov's school” of Russian chemists, an epiculturist and a lepidopterist, a public figure
· Fyodor Ivanovich Shalyapin – a Russian opera and chamber singer
· Gayaz Iskhaki – an outstanding figure of Tatar popular movement, a writer, a publicist, a publisher and a politician
· Sadreddin Nizamettinovich Maksudov – a Russian (later Turkish) lawyer, a statesman and a socio-political person
· Baki Idrisovich Urmanche – a people's artist of Tatarstan and the Russian Federation
· Musa Dzhalil – a Tatar Soviet poet, a Hero of the Soviet Union
· Aleksandr Yermeningeldovich Arbuzov – a Russian organic chemist
· Gavriil Romanovich Derzhavin – a Russian poet of the Enlightenment
· Gavriil Pertrovich Kamenev – a Russian poet, writer and translator
· Pyotr Mikhailovich Gavrilov – a Soviet officer, Major, a hero of the Brest Fortress defence, a hero of the Soviet Union (1957)
· Sofia Asgatovna Gubaidulina – a Russian composer
Emergency phone numbers
· United rescue service — 01 EMERCOM
· Police — 02
· Emergency medical services — 03
· Gas leaks — 04
· Urban telephone network directory service — 09
Sources of information on region tourist facilities
The Republic of Tatarstan Ministry of youth affairs, sport and tourism:
Kazan, Peterburgskaya Str., 12
Phone: (843) 222-8101, (843) 222-8179
Kazan Executive Board Committee for foreign relations and tourism:
Kazan, Kremlyovskaya Str., 2a
Phone: (843) 292-6092, (843) 292-6121 Факс: (843) 292-9672
Kazan tourist information centre:
Kazan, Kremlyovskaya Str., 15/25
Phone: (843) 292-9777 Факс: (843) 292-3010
The Russian ministry of Emergency situations territorial bodies
The Republic of Tatarstan ministry of Emergency situations:
Kazan, Gubkina Str., 50
Phone: (843) 221-62-03