The Republic of Sakha
The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
Federal District: The Far Eastern Federal District
Area: 3 083 523 km2
Population: 949 753 persons.
Emblem of the Republic of Sakha
Flag of the Republic of Sakha
The Republic of Sakha— is a subject of the Russian Federation
The capital city of the Republic of Sakha — Yakutsk.
The Republic of Sakha was formed on April 27, 1922.
The republic shares its border with the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in the east, Magadan Oblast, with Khabarovsk Krai in the south-east, with the Amur Oblast and Zabaykalsky Krai in the south, with the Irkutsk Oblast in the south-west, with Krasnoyarsk Krai in the west, the Laptev Sea and Eastern Siberian Sea form its terrain lines in the north.
Population of Yakutia is 949,753 (2009 Census). Proportion of urban population - 64, 3% (2002 Census), population density - 0, 3 /km². Thus, population destiny in Yakutia is one of the lowest among the subjects of the Russian Federation.
The Republic includes 36 municipal districts: 34 municipal areas and 2 urban districts. The municipal areas consist of urban and rural settlements (agricultural community ), the total number of agricultural communities is 365, including 31 national.
Archeologists stated that ancient people inhabited Yakutia already in the early Paleolithic. At the same time also appeared the first archaeological monuments dated from 300,000 to 3 million years ago. The most famous and well-studied is the Lower Paleolithic man site Deering - Yuryakh, which is located at the middle reaches of the Lena River. Beginning in mid 1,000 A.C. the ancestors Evens and Evenks appeared in the territory of Yakutia. Near to the XIII century Tungus tribes settled in the Middle Lena, Vilyui, Olekma. The arrival of the ancestors of the Yakut in Lensky Krai forced them to withdraw to the west and east of the Lena River. It is assumed that the Turkic-speaking tribes moved into the territory of modern Yakutia in several waves, the latter of which occured in XIV—XV centuries.
Yakut ethnic group formed in the basin of the Middle Lena. There the final formation of the people happened based on mixing of alien Turkic tribes and local palaeo-Asiatic kins, as well as alien Mongol horintsyand Tungus. Cattle breeding development brought considerable changes into the economic life of the region. Yakuts’ ancestors began developing various handicrafts (blacksmith’s, jewelry’s, pottery etc.) and constructing permanent houses. By early 17th century Yakutian kins lived in the Indigirka and Yana basins and advanced cattle- and horse-breeding to the arctic districts of Yakutia.
The capital city of republic, Yakutsk, founded in 1632 by Russian explorers in the middle reaches of the Lena River, is a major administrative, political, economic, cultural, scientific and educational center in the north-east of Russia. Founded in the XVII century county towns - Vilyuisk (1634), Olekminsk (1635), Verkhoyansk (1638) and Srednekolymsk (1644) justly are among the oldest cities of Siberia.
Geographical Position, Natural Resources, Climate
Geographical Position.The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) occupies almost the entire north-east of Asian mainland, it stretches for 2 500 km from the north to the south, from the west to the east — 2 000 km.
Republic Square is more than 3 million km² (1/6 part of the territory of Russia). Over 40% of the territory is in the Polar Circle. The territory lies in three time zones. Time difference between Moscow and Yakutsk is 6 hours. Major cities are Lenek, Mirny, Aldan, Neryungri.
Sharply continental climate of Yakutia is defined geographic position in northeast Asia. Season with temperatures below 0 ° C lasts here from October to April. In winter, the territory is under the strong influence of the Asian anticyclone. Atlantic and Pacific air masses, and if coming here, then strongly modified. Mostly calm, windless weather, in which there is a strong cooling of the earth's surface, and from it, and air. The average January temperature in the south-west (upstream) -26 ° C in Central Yakutia and Vilyuyu — down to –40 ° C. Minimum temperature – 55 ...– 65 ° C are not uncommon.
On the territory of Yakutia (in the village Oimyakon) is a Pole of Cold in the Northern Hemisphere, where the lowest temperature recorded in a populated part of the planet — –72,2 ° C.
Because of the dry air in the winter precipitation falls a little. Snow depth in the lower the Lena River is 15-20 cm, and in Central Yakutia - 20-25 cm
Summer in most parts of Yakutia is warm, sunny, although short. The average temperature in July in Central Yakutia is +18-19 ° C, but this figure takes into account the relatively low night temperature, maximum temperature, which is reported in Yakutsk, reaches +38 ° C. In general, the climate in the summer in Central Yakutia is arid, despite the fact that by this time, the amount of precipitation increases. In the north, temperatures are much lower (in the Lena Delta about +7 ° C).
Transition periods are spring and autumn, it is very short. Autumn night frosts are becoming longer and very quickly lead to a predominance of negative temperatures. The sun was still warm, but since the beginning of October in the shadows is frost. Low rainfall almost eliminates the bad roads. Spring lasts about a month. Snow does not melt so much as evaporate in dry air.
Yakutia is land of permafrost. Summer heat is sufficient only to the upper soil layer repulsion to a depth of 1-3 m. All organic life is mostly concentrated in the thawed, the so-called active layer of soil. At greater depths, even in late summer temperatures do not rise above 0 ° C.
Information on permafrost already contained in the reports explorers in the XVII century. The first detailed report about this phenomenon was made in connection with an attempt to ensure the well water Yakut ostrog (fort). Voivode Matthew Kravkov after undertaken attempts in 1685—1686 years reported: "A well of ... in Yakutskom make any measures can not, because the ground thaws in the summer, half an arshin, and more than two arshin of ground never melts, and at the bottom the ground is always frozen".
Permafrost is having a tremendous impact on all natural processes. People have to be considered in economic activity with it.
Industry of Yakutia is focused on the extraction and enrichment of raw materials, the republic is rich in natural resources. On the territory of Yakutia is the largest in the country of Elkon uranium deposit. The main industrial sectors: ferrous metallurgy, mainly diamonds and gold (90% of all Russian diamonds and 24% of gold mined in Yakutia), the coal industry, production of building materials, timber and woodworking industry; auto repairing industry, light and food industries.
Main industries: reindeer and horse breeding, farming in the central group ulus. Crop production: potatoes, vegetables, wheat, barley and oats. Hunting: fishing. Reindeer husbandry in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is a traditional craft of most minorities in the North.
Most part of freight is carried by waterways. During navigation the main waterways are the rivers Lena (with its tributaries Vilyui and Aldan), Yana, Indigirka and Kolyma. Freight to the northern districts of the republic is delivered by Northern Seaway.
The highway system of the Republic of Sakha is being developed. On October 25th, 2008, the federal highway “Kolyma” (Yakutsk-Magadan) was opened for all-year-round exploitation.). In 2007, the highway "Viluy” (Yakutsk-Viljuisk-Mirny-Lena-Ust-Kut - Tulun) included in the list of federal highways. However, the fact of such a road does not exist: the site Lensk-Ust-Kut is a winter roads for which road connections possible for about three months a year. In the long view it is in planning stage the exploitation of the road "Amga” (Yakutsk-Amga-Ust-Maya) to the port of Ayan in Khabarovsk Krai. The construction of year-round trails is also planning "Jan" (Khandyga-Batagay Ust-Kuyga) and Anabar "(Mirny-Udachny-Olenyok-Yuryung-Haya). At the same time, the federal highway "Lena", which connects Yakutsk with a nationwide network of automobile, it requires a serious overhaul.
Air transportation is developed. There are 32 airports in the republic.
The construction of Amur-Yakutsk railway up to Yakutsk is continued.. Effective area is Berkakit-Aldan-Tommot.
• State Nature Reserve “Olekminsky”
• Lena Pillars
• Ust-Lensky State Nature Reserve
• Park Siine
• Ilyina-Dmitrieva, Anegina (1943) — singer of opera and chamber, People's Artist of USSR (1988)
• Khodulev, Dmitri (1912—1977) — Soviet film director, actor, People's Artist of USSR (1958)
• Yakovlev, Vladimir (born November 25, 1944, Olekminsk, Yakut ASSR) — prominent Russian politician and statesman.