Republic of Mordovia
The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Republic of Mordovia
Federal District: The Privolzhsky Federal District
Area: 26 128 km2
Population: 833 000 persons.
Coat of arms of the Republic of Mordovia
Flag of the Republic of Mordovia
Republic of Mordovia —is a subject of the Russian Federation
The capital is the city of Saransk.
The Republic of Mordovia shares its borders with Nizhny Novgorod oblast in the north, Chuvashia in the north-east, with Ulyanovsk region in the east, with Penza oblast in the south and with Ryazan oblast in the west.
Population - 833, 000 (Census 2009). Population density — 31, 8 km2. Proportion of urban population — 60, 3%;
The Republic of Mordovia includes 22 districts and 3 cities of republican subordination (Saransk, Ruzaevka, Kovylkino).
Mordovian tribes were first mentioned in VI XIII centuries. In the XIII century the territory of Mordovia was a part of the Ryazan and Nizhny Novgorod principalities and in the mid of the XIIIth century it was captured by the Mongols. When in 1552 the Khanate of Kazan fell down, the territory of Mordovia was attached to Russia. Active exploration of the territory of modern Mordovia refers to the beginning of XVII century, when the Belgorod-Simbirsk defensive wall was built. . However, some populations (eg, Temniki) were known much earlier and were in the realm of Kasimov. In 1774 the army under the leadership of Pugachev was there. Already by the end of XVII most of the fortifications of Mordovia lost its meaning. Industry connected with the processing of agricultural products starts to develop on the land of Mordovia. Opening of the Moscow-Kazan railway in XIX century revived the economic life of Mordovia, the products of agriculture began to supply in many cities and provinces of Russia.
In November 1917 March 1918Soviet regime was established there. In 1928, the Mordovian region was created as a part of the Middle Volga region, but in 1930 it was transformed into an autonomous region, and already in 1934 was created the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Mordovia. During the Great Patriotic War Mordovia served as the industrial hinterland, some enterprises from central Russia were evacuated here. In December, 1990 the Supreme Council of the Mordvin ASSR accepted a Declaration on state and legal sovereignty of the republic. Since 1994 the republic is called The Republic of Mordovia.
Geographical Position, Natural Resources, Climate
The Republic is located on the eastern part of the East European Plain. The western part is located on the Oka-Don Plain, central and eastern parts are situated on the territory of the Volga Upland. The highest point of the republic is 324 metres. The republic shares its borders with Nizhny Novgorod region on the north, with Chuvashia on the north-east, with the Ulyanovsk region on the east, with the Penza Region on the south and with the Ryazan region on the west.
There are 114 rivers in Mordovi. The main rivers of the republic are: Moksha with its tributaries - Issa, Sivin, Satis, Wade and Sarah, Alatyr, Insar, Rudnya. There are approximately 500 lakes in Mordovia the most famous are: Inerka and Tatarka.
The climate is moderately continental, the average temperature in January is 11C below zero, the average temperature in July is 19C above zero. The average annual precipitation is about 450-500 mm. The forests are mainly needle-leaved and large-leaved, shrub and meadow steppes. Herbage plants dominate the number of tree and shrub species is not big. The main tree species are: pine, fir, larch, English oak, ash, maple, elm, birch and downy, alder, linden small-leaved, black poplar. Fauna consists of representatives of forest fauna (elk, wild boar, lynx, marten, hare, grouse, grouse, woodpeckers, thrushes, titmouse) and to a lesser extent, the steppe fauna (spotted ground squirrel, steppe lemming, ordinary mole rat, great jerboa). The underwater flora is presented by 44 species of fish.
The core industries are: machine building (including tool engineering) and electrical engineering, chemical and chemical-biological industry, wood-working industry, consumer goods and food industry, the production of building materials.
In the agricultural sector is dominated by grain crops — wheat, barley, buckwheat, and rye.Sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables, sunflower are cultivated. Horticulture, dairy and beef cattle, beekeeping are very well developed.
• The historical Trans-Siberian line is lead here, the large locomotive depot and wagon depot of Ruzaevka, the car shed of Saransk, and the car shed named Krasnyi Uzel
• Double-track electrified line - Saransk-Ruzaevka-Penza
• Single-track diesel lineKrasnyi Uzel – Kanash and Krasnyi Uzel – Arzamas
• The Saransk Airport
• Federal highway M5 "Ural "
• Roads that lead to Penza and Nizhny Novgorod
• Oil pipe line from Penza to Saransk
• The Network of gas pipe lines, including the largest Urengoy-Pomary-Uzhgorod, compressor stations in the townships of Barashevo and Yavas, and urban settlement of Torbeevo
• Power transmission line support from Moscow to Zhygulevskaya hydro-electric power station and the primary road from Penza to Arzamas are lead here
Mordovia State Reserve named after P.G. Smidovich
Mordovia Republican Museum of Fine Arts named after S.D. Erzya
• Sergey V. Astakhov (b. November 8, 1953) — Soviet and Russian cameraman.
• Leonid A. Zamyatin (b. 1948) — Russian detective story writer.
• Alexey Nemov (b. May 28, 1976) — famous Russian gymnast, who was the Olympic champion for fout times
• Victor G. Shuvalov (b.15 December 1923) — Soviet ice hockey player. Honored Master of Sports (1954)