The Republic of Komi
The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The North-Western Federal District
Area: 416 774 km2
Population: 958,500 persons.
Emblem of the Republic of Komi
Flag of the Republic of Komi
Since childhood everyone dreams of a travel to the North. Here our planet opens up in a state of nature especially reverently. Lovers of real travelling will go into raptures! Just imagine: you will meet 397 objects of cultural heritage of the Komi Republic, 71 of them are of federal importance. Besides, the national park “Yugyd va” is the largest specially protected natural area in Russia and Europe. You cannot but visit the park “Yugyd va”; in 1995, along with Pechora-Ilych Nature Reserve it was included into the World Heritage List of UNESCO, commonly referred to as “Virgin Komi Forests” (the first Russian natural territory to be granted such a high status). In Pechora-Ilych biosphere reserve you can see the operation of the first in the world reindeer farm.
No doubt, landmarks of the Komi Republic are Weathering Columns (Mansi boobs), one of the Seven Wonders of Russia, a unique geological monument, situated on the Manpupuner plateau. Close your eyes and imagine seven stone giants standing in a line on a flat peak. These monoliths are around 30 to 42 meters high. It is impossible to imagine. You should come here and look at this wonder by your own eyes.
How it is interesting to discover national traditions and identity of Finno-Ugric forms of life. For sure you will be treated to unique fish dishes and home-made beer of fantastic taste. Travelers will come home with one-of-a-kind souvenirs. Folk crafts are developed here: wood carving and painting, birch bark art, basketwork (birch twig, root), weaving, pattern knitting, lace-making, processing of clay, leather, fur, bone, needlework, producing of a folk doll. That is the beautiful and romantic land that waits for travelers.
The Komi Republic — a subject of the Russian Federation
Administrative Center — the city of Syktyvkar (244 thousand people).
The largest cities of Komi — Syktyvkar, Vorkuta, Vuktyl, Inta, Pechora, Sosnogorsk, Usinsk, Ukhta.
The Komi Republic was established on 22 August 1921 as an autonomous region - Komi (Zyryan) Autonomous Oblast. On 5 December 1936 it was reorganized into the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as a part of the RSFSR. On 23 November 1990 1936 it was reorganized into the Komi Soviet Socialist Republic. On 26 May 1992 1936 it was reorganized into the Komi Republicas part of Russia.
It is bounded by the Nenets Autonomous District (north, northeast), by the Tyumen region (namely, by its part – the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District (northeast, east), by the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District (southeast, south), by the Sverdlovsk region (south), by the Perm region (south), by the Kirov region (south, southwest, west), by the Arkhangelsk region (northwest, north).
The population of the republic amounts to 1 mln. people.
It is supposed that the limits of the modern Komi Republic began to settle alleged to 300,000 years ago. Confirmed settling of these territories is dated from about 40,000 years ago. The ancestors of the Komi-Zyryans were known under the name "perm". Scientists think it derived from the Karelian «pera maa», which means "land abroad."
Important source of information about the ancestors of the Komi-Zyryans is "The Life of Bishop Stephan of Perm, which focuses on the bishop and educator, who converted the population of Perm to Christianity.
Since the second half of the 13th century the land of Komi "Perm" and "Pechora" belonged to Novgorod volosts, and by the end of the 15th century, this territory became an integral part of the Russian state. Since the 16th century the Komi together with the Russian began to settle the upper Vychegda, the Mezen and the Pechora basin. The first reference of a tiny graveyard of Ust-Sysosolsk belong to this date. It was inhabited by farmers and merchants, the main occupations of the inhabitants were agriculture and animal husbandry, hunting and fishing.
Over a period of 100 years the population size remained unchanged, and only in the early 18th century the rapid growth of Ust-Sysolsk began. It was settled by migrants from different regions of the Komi and neighboring Russian territories. Ust-Sysolsk became a geographical and economic center of the region. Here intermediate trade between some parts of the Komi and Petersburg, Moscow, the Kama region , the Volga region and Siberia was carried out .
In 1780 by edict of Catherine the Great the village of Ust-Sysolsk was reorganized into a district city and together with the district it was merged in the vicegerency of Vologda.
The Komi region has always attracted the attention of the Russian princes and tsars. Coinage at the Moscow Mint required a lot of silver, but there were no deposits of it in Russia. So it was necessary to use west-european coins as “scrap”. However, in the early 13th century there were rumors about silver and copper depositing on the northern river Tzilma. In 1491, Tsar Ivan the Third sent an expedition in search of ore . Searches were successful: silver and copper ore were found. From of old local people have known and used deposits of salt in the Komi region.
In the late 16th century peasants of Seregov sold the land at the foot of the Seregova Mount to a representative of a famous manufacturer’s family ofStroganov, who built a salt works. The craft in Seregovo reached its zenith in the late 17th century, when up to 5 thousand tons of salt per year were produced here. The plant became one of the largest in Russia. Recourses of salt in Seregovo are still large enough to provide salt producing for an unlimited time.
In the 19th century the economy of the Komi region continued to be of agro-commercial character. However, increasing demand for wood products on the international and Russian market encouraged development of lumbering industry in the district. Wood was being delivered to England, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, France, in part - to the domestic market: to Astrakhan, Vyatka, Saratov. Komi continued to stand away from railways and highways. to Navigable rivers played the key role for transportation of people and goods, and it gave rise to the development of steam navigation.
Improved transport routes encouraged development of trade, increasing of volumes of exported wood, suede, fish and furs. The 30s of the last century became the most important stage of the development of the republic’s economy.
In 1921, the decree on establishing the Komi Autonomous Oblast as a part of RSFSR was adopted. In 1936, the Oblast was reorganized into the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1990, the republic was reorganized into the Komi SSR, and in 1992, - into the Komi Republic.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate
The Komi Republic is situated mainly on the territory of the Russian Plain. To the east of the republic there is the Ural Mountains, where the highest point is the Mount Narodnaya (1,894 m).
The Komi is primarily a forest republic; forests cover 72% of the total land area, in the taiga zone spruce and pine are dominated, but Siberian species are found as well — fir, cedar, and larch. The rest lands are swamps, forest tundra and tundra with deer pastures.
There are two large rivers on the territory of the republic: the Pechora — the largest river in the European North — and Vychegda; together with many small rivers they form a dense river network.
In Komi they register 50 species of mammals, 200 species of birds, 36 species of fishes, the most valuable of which is salmon.
The dimensions and extention of the territory, the influence of the Arctic and Atlantic oceans and ofthe natural barrier of the Ural Mountains in the east – all this creates heterogeneity of climate. These places are characterized by frequent outbreaks of cold Arctic and relatively warm Atlantic air masses. Such conditions is a fertile ground for cyclones, huge temperature and pressure swings, rapid shifts in wind direction and velocity, abundant rainfall. Location in subarctic and moderate climatic zones provides for climate with severe long-lasting winter (up to -50 Со) and short chilly summer.
Komi Republic is often called a natural store due to mineral resources that are unique by their reserves, mode of occurrence, diversity and quality.
Mineral resources include reserves of coal, oil, gas, beauxites, titanic ore, salts, gold, diamonds, nonferrous and rare metal ores, fluor, oil-shale, mineral water and constructional materials.
Fuel and power resources of the republic are represented by commercial reserves of oil, bitum natural gas, gas condensate, coking and power generating coals of Pechora Coal Basin, oil-shale, peat and wood.
Raw material base of titanic ores of the Komi is the largest one in Russia and neighboring countries.
A lot of attention should be paid to balneological resources of the republic, which include thermal and mineral waters of different concentration and composition, sulfurated hydrogen muds and decay ooze. Almost everywhere there are therapeutic and mineral waters.
In the republic there are extraction of commercial minerals, manufacturing activity, electricity generation and distribution. Agroindustrial complex is represented by hunting, fishing, and food production. Livestock breeding and plant growing are developed to a limited extent (due to natural climatic conditions of the North.)
Leading sector of agriculture of the republic is livestock breeding. In the northern agricultural zone dairy farming and reindeer breeding are of the predominant importance. Reindeer breeding is the most effective branch of livestock breeding. Third part of the total reindeer population of the European north is concentrated in the republic. Forage crops predominate in plantings, there are also potato and vegetable acreage. Agriculture does not provide the population with the necessary, a part of the products is delivered from other regions of the country.
The transport network in the Republic of Komi includes 2.3 thousand km of railways (including 1.7 thousand km of public use), 4.1 thousand km of navigable inland waterways (including 3.1 thousand km of public use), 11.8 thousand km of roads (including 6.3 thousand km of public roads). Air transport is developed as well.
Types of tourism
- Educational tourism
- Business tourism
- Event tourism
- Health tourism
- Hunting and fishing
- Active tourism
- Religious tourism
- Pechora-Ilych Biosphere Reserve
- Weathering Columns on the Manpupuner plateau. Torre-Porre-Iz plateau
- The first in the world reindeer domestication farm. Reindeer farm in the natural reserve
- National Park Yugyd Va
- Ust-Zilma village
- Ust-Vym village
- The Trinity-St. Stephan Monastery
- Ekaterina’s channel
- Sorokin, Pitirim Alexandrovich — the world-renowned sociologist, philologist.
- Kuratov, Ivan Alexeevich — founder of Komi literature, linguist, translator, Komi poet.
· Zhakov, Callistrat Falaleevich — Komi-Zyriansky ethnographer, philosopher, writer.
· Leontiev, Valeriy Yakovlevich – soviet and Russian crooner
· Smetanina, Raisa Petrovna — four-time Olympic champion and seven-time world chempion
- Gertsman, Mikhail Livovich — chairman of Composers Guild of the Komi, Honored Artist of the RF and the Komi Republic, recipient of the State Prize of the RF and the Komi Republic
- Vityazeva, Valentina Alexandrovna — the first rector of Syktyvkar State University, the first rectoress of an university in the USSR
- Diakonov, Nikolay Mikhailovich — playwriter, stage director, People's Artist of the Komi ASSR. The author of a play «Wedding with dowry» (1950)