The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Southern Federal District
Area: 100 967 km2
Population: 4 229 505 persons.
Emblem of Rostov region
Flag of Rostov Region
The Rostov region — the subject of the Russian Federation
Administrative center: the city of Rostov-on-Don
The region was formed on September 13, 1937 through the seceding from the Azov-Black Sea region.
Population – 4241,8 thousand people (2009)
Borders: in the east — the Volgograd Region, in the north — the Voronezh Region, in the south — the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, the Republic of Kalmykia, in the west — Ukraine.
Districts of the Region: the Rostov Region consists of 463 municipal units, including 12 urban districts, 43 municipal areas; municipal areas include 18 towns, 390 rural settlements.
In ancient times the area of the modern Rostov Region was settled by tribes of Cimmerians, who were later drived out by the Scythians who came from the east. In the 4th century B.C. near the Taganrog Bay a Greek settlement was founded. In the 1st century B.C. er. Hellenes founded the city of Tanais. In the early 7th century A.D. most of the territory was occupied by the Khazars. In 965, Sarkel, the capital of the Khazar khaganate, was captured by warriors of Prince Svyatoslav, and in its place a Slavic town of Belaya Vezha (White Tower) sprang up. In the 12th century the lands were occupied by the Mongol-Tatar people; in the 15th century the coast of the Azov Sea was under governance of Ottoman Empire. As far back as the 14th century in the lands of the Rostov region Cossack outlaws appeared, who later defended borders of the southern Russia from the Turks and Tatars. The first Russian outposts on the Don appeared in 18th century. Since 1763 the fortress of St. Dimitri of Rostov was administered by a Voronezh governor; in 1775 the Azov Governorate was established , which included the Don Army, Azov, Kagalnik and the fortress of St. Dimitry of Rostov. In 1806 the city of Rostov was founded . In 1870, the land of the Don Army was renamed as the Oblast (Region) of the Don Army; this name remained until 1918. During the Civil War, in 1918 the independent Don Cossack Republic was established, in 1920 it fell, and Soviet power was established on the Don . In the same year the Don region with the regional center of Rostov was founded . In November 1924 the North Caucasian region was formed. In the same year, in connection with the liquidation of the Don region Rostov became the regional center of the Don district of the North Caucasus region.
In October 1928, Rostov was seceded as an administratively separate city; Novocherkassk became the center of the Don Region . In 1934, the North-Caucasian region was divided into the Azov-Black Sea Territory (with its center in Rostov-on-Don) and the North Caucasus Territory (with the center in Pyatigorsk). In 1937, the Azov-Black Sea Territory was, in turn, divided into the Krasnodar Territory and the Rostov Region. In 1958 the region refound its territory to the borders of 1937.
Scythian burial mounds near Taganrog (Scythian bronze ware, scabbards of swords, a variety of gold jewelry made in the Scythian "animal" style). Historical and Cultural Museum-Reserve in the village of Starocherkasskaya; in the city Belaya Kalitva (previously – Ust-Belokalitvenskaya village), on the top of the Karaul Mount a commemorative token "To the Host of Igor — to brave Rusiches 1185" in honor of the battle of band of men of Prince Igor against the Polovtsy in 1185. The Veshenskaya village is the birthplace of Mikhail Sholokhov. In the center of the village, in a building of former gymnasium, where the writer studied theExhibition "M. A. Sholokhov. Life and Works" is carried out.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate:
Distance from Moscow is 756 km. The Don, one of the Europe’s largest river flows through the territory of the region; the Tsimlyanskoe reservoir is located here. Main tributaries of the Don are navigable, the Seversky Donets and the Manych rivers, are navigable . Lakes occupy only 0.4% of the territory. The timber resources of the region are rather scarce, with forest covering only 2.8% of the region’s territory. These forests have mainly water and environmental protection functions.
The climate is moderately continental. The average temperatures in January are from -9 ° C to -5 ° C, in July from +22 ° C to +24 ° C. Annual rainfall amounts to 400—650 mm. Vegetation period is 170—190 days. The territory of the Rostov region is exposed to hot winds. It is situated in a steppe zone. Soils are mainly chernozem , dark brown and brown, solonetz in spots. In overflowlands there are alluvial meadow soils. Forests cover about 6% of the territory of the region; the main species include oak, maple, ash, aspen, elm. The animals that survived are gophers, jerboas, hamsters, steppe polecats, foxes, saiga antelopes. The birds — larks, cranes, eagles, kestrels and others
In the territory of the region agricultural industry, food-processing industry, heavy and agricultural machinery, coal industry, automobile manufacture are developed. Large industrial enterprises.
Harvesting wheat near Belaya Kalitva. The main wealth of the region is in its soil resources.
In the overall structure of lands there is about 65% of chernozem .
More than 60% of gross agricultural output is produced by sectors of crop production. High priority in its structure belongs to grain farming, for which about half of the acreage is used . The main crops is winter wheat. Plantings of corn, rice, millet, buckwheat and other cereals, soybeans are widespread.
The main industrial crop is sunflower. Industrial horticulture and wine growing were set up. Large areas are used for vegeculture.
In the sector of livestock, farms specialize in the following areas - dairy and beef farming, sheep breeding, horse breeding and poultry industry.
In the territory of Rostov Region the following highways run:
• the federal highway E 115-M4 ”Moscow Novorossiysk”
• the E 50-M19
• the E 58-M23 ”Chisinau-Rostov”
• the E 40-M21 “Volgograd-Chisinau”
In the Rostov region there are railways owned by the RZD and pertaining to the North-Caucasian railway. The region is crossed by railway lines leading to the south of Russia – to the Krasnodar Territory (the Azov and Black seas), as well as to Abkhazia and to Ukraine. One of the railway transportation hubs of southern Russia is the Likhaya station through which rail traffic of east-west/north-south in southern Russia passes.
The main waterways of the region are the Don and Seversky Donets rivers. Ports of the Azov Sea are represented by Taganrog and Rostov-on-Don. The major infrastructure project in lower reaches of the Don River is construction of the Rostov universal port, which opening is planned by federal authorities for 2016. The Universal Port is designed to strengthen trade relations between Russia and states of Europe, Africa and Asia. The capacity of a future port is 16 million tons of cargo a year.
• Academic Drama Theater named after Maxim Gorky
• Archeological museum-preserve Tanais
• Ivan Ershov (1867-1943) - Opera singer, People's Artist of USSR (1938).
• Anatoly Kalinin (1916-2008) - Russian writer and author of the novels "Gypsy," "Echoes of War".• Peter Krasnov (1869-1947) - figure of struggle against Bolsheviks, Cossack of the Vyoshenskaya village, son of General Lieutenant.
• Faina Ranevskaya (Feldman) (1896-1984) - Soviet film and stage actress, People's Artist of USSR (1961), three times winner of the Stalin Prize (place of birth - Taganrog).
• Mikhail Sholokhov (1905-1984) - Russian writer and Nobel laureate (place of birth – the Kruzhilin village ).