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Pskov region

Saint Trinity CathedralTrinity ChurchEnsemble Pskov KremlinPskov Region

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Pskov Region

Federal District: The North-Western Federal District

Area: 55,3 km2
Population: 705 000 persons.

Emblem of Pskov region
Emblem of Pskov region

Flag of Pskov region
Flag of Pskov region



Description

Pskov land is a land with an amazing story, a place that can be called the guardian of Russian antiquity. All the most important events of Russian history in one way or another connected with Pskov. There was a trade route "from Varangians to Greeks" in Spaso-Elizarovsky Monastery of by the elder Philotheus was established well-known theory of the state "Moscow is the Third Rome," in these places were born Saints Olga and Prince Vladimir, the baptizer of Rus. At the turn of the lake of Pskovskaya oblast accomplished the fateful Battle of the Ice, stopped the Teutonic "rush to the East" in the XIII century. At the same Pskov railway station last Romanov Tsar Nicholas II abdicated the throne of the All-Russia March 15, 1917

Before the traveler hospitably opened the ancient temples and fortresses, noble mansions and parks, picturesque villages and friendly city with unique cultural traditions, archaeological treasures and works of modern masters – this all is Pskov land and its culture. In Pskov there are 372 monuments of the federal (national) values, 3588 monuments of local importance and 475 newly identified heritage sites. The number of monuments, especially the architectural and archaeological, Pskovskaya oblast is one of the leading places in Europe.

Until now, witnessing the glory, wealth, grandeur and spiritual power of the city remain free stone fortress in Pskov, Izborsk, Porkhov, Pechora, and the frescoes Mirozhsky Snetogorsk monasteries, the church of the Assumption in Meletove, ancient trade routes, laid enterprising merchants, and marking them as landmarks, the beautiful church.

Start your journey with the Pskov Kremlin, it’s a visit card of the city, religious, historical, architectural and urban development center of Pskov. How many secrets are kept courageous, invincible, who never let the enemy into the city. The remarkable part of the architectural heritage of Pskov is ancient churches of the XII-XV centuries, whitewashed, single-headed, with typical belfries and porches. These features dramatically distinguish them from other monuments of Russian architecture of the time, which makes it possible to speak of Pskov architectural style.

Pskov region has always been the concentration of the monasteries in the region, there are eight existing dwellings. Special place of pilgrimage for Orthodox Christians is the Holy Dormition Pskov-Caves Monastery, a history spanning more than five centuries. Since its inception in the late XV century monastery has never been closed.

Pskov school of iconography is also unique. Pskov icons are typical for an amazing imaginative expression, infrequent voluntary treatment of the canon. In the Transfiguration Cathedral Mirozhsky monastery can be seen on the outstanding craftsmanship of the XII century frescoes.

Be sure to visit the three major museum: Pskov Joint History, Art and Architectural Museum-Reserve "Pogankiny House," Historical and Architectural and Natural Landscape Museum-Reserve "Izborsk" and the State Memorial History and Literature, and Natural Landscape Museum-Reserve Pushkin "Mikhailovskoye" with many branches, including a museum-estate of Rimsky-Korsakov and Lubensk Vechashe, Mussorgsky in Naumovo, Kovalevskaya in Polibino.

And if we add to the charm the old broad welcoming spirit of the people, without any doubt, need to come here to relax body and mind and realize how great Russia is.

Pskov regionis the subject of the Russian Federation.

Its administrative center is Pskov.

The population by the beginning of 2008 was 705 000 people.

It borders on Leningrad, Novgorod, Tver, Smolensk region, Belarus and the European Union - Estonia and Latvia.

The oblast was formed on August 23, 1944.

  The largest cities are Pskov (191.8 thousand), the Velikye Luky (98.3 thousand), Island (23.4 thousand).

History

In 2003 it celebrated its 1,100th anniversary. The first mentions in chronicles of the city belongs to the 903. However, these archaeological studies indicate that the settlement in Pskov emerged about 2,000 years ago.

Since the end of the IX and XII century to the Pskov, Novgorod as part of the land was part of Kievan Rus. In the XII century, Pskov, departs the jurisdiction of Novgorod the Great, while remaining self-sufficient city. In the second half of the XIII century, the time of the reign of the city Dovmont in baptizing of  Timothy (1266 - 1299.), Pskov actually becomes independent from Great Novgorod. Fled from persecution in Lithuania and received Pskov Dovmont reigned 33 years. Pskov earned the love above all for their courage and military prowess (in the many battles Dovmont didn’t have a single defeat), Prince of life, not only successfully fought, but also developed the city, which became his family. Cross-border provision of Pskov contributed to the growth of foreign trade. Pskov has successfully traded with Narva, Riga, Dorpat, Polotsk, and later - with the cities of the Hanseatic League.

In 1348, officially was recognized the independence of Novgorod, Pskov Bolotovski signed the contract. More than a half century, from 1348 to 1510 years, lasted Pskov Veche Republic. Veche meetings usually took place within the Crom, on the square in front of Trinity Cathedral.

By the beginning of the XVI century, Pskov, in fact, lost its independence. Meanwhile, the majority of the Russian lands had already been united Moscow and formed a unified Russian state. January 13, 1510 Pskov symbol of independence - assembly bell - was removed from the belfry of Trinity. Thus, it is bloodless, by decree of the Moscow Grand Prince Vasily III fell arbitrary, noisy, freedom-loving Pskov Veche. The constant threat emanating from the west, Pskov was forced to build fortifications.

In contrast to the palaces and castles of medieval Europe, the only feudal Pskov fortress was built to protect the entire population, including farmers, from the enemy. The medieval Pskov, with its strong walls, towers and was one of the greatest fortresses in the world. The height of walls was more than 20 m, average depth - 4.5 m, the total length of the city walls as high as 9 km, with 40 towers, only a portion of which has survived to our time. Along with the Pskov fortress on the Protection of the Russian lands were Izborsk fortress, Porkhov, Opochka Island, Toompea, and others.

The whole history of medieval Pskov is a history of incessant war, hostile raids, sieges and military campaigns. As an outpost of Russia in the north-west, Pskov virtually alone opposed the warlike neighbors, the land west of Pskov propped Livonian Order, from the south - hostile Lithuania. The main threat for several centuries came from the Livonian Order. Pages Pskov chronicles kept countless evidence of persistent cross-border conflict, of military glory and valor of Pskov.

In 1242, Alexander Nevsky, together with his troops won a brilliant victory over the German knights of the April ice of Lake Chud, thereby eliminating a direct threat to the capture of the Russian lands. The defense of Pskov from the troops of the Polish king Stefan Batory took place  in 1581-1582 years. Was the highest manifestation of strength and courage to Pskov. It lasted 30 weeks. Many times, the Batory army tried to take the city in an open assault, through the tunnel, the betrayal, but in vain. During the siege of Pskov 31 attack repulsed vastly superior enemy, and themselves carried out 46 attacks against the royal troops. Even 33 years later Pskov alone, devoid of any help, again confronts an army, this time the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus. And again was scored a victory over one of the best armies in Western Europe.

Pskov has played an important role in the military history of Russia in the early XVIII century, during the Northern War. At the time the city became the center of the current location of the Russian army.

Already in the XVIII century have been delineated borders Pskov land which, in fact, and have survived to this day. Pskov province was established in 1772 by the decree of Catherine II.

During the XVIII-XIX centuries, the province has developed as a purely agrarian, with a small number of urban population. One characteristic of the Pskov province was fishing craft in the first place - catch smelt.

During the First World War in Pskov is headquarters of the Northern Front, which took place at Riga. The city receives thousands of refugees and evacuees from the Baltic companies.

2nd March 1917 the last Russian Emperor Nicholas II in the royal train, delayed at the station, Pskov, has signed an abdication from the throne. February 23, 1918 in the vicinity of Pskov are first baptism of fire of the Red Army. Currently, this date is celebrated in Russia as the Day of Defender of the Fatherland.

During the Second World War the city was badly damaged. Pskov was occupied by the German army July 9, 1941. At the time of the capture of the city of Pskov remained 10-12 thousand civilians. During the occupation the German invaders destroyed all available in the city before the war industry. Killed over 3500 innocent civilians only, there were organized a camp for Soviet prisoners of war. According to the regional commission to investigate atrocities in the region, in the camps only to the city of Pskov killed more than 200,000 prisoners of war. July 23, 1944 the city of Pskov was released. Pskov Region was established August 23, 1944.

In 1945 by decision of the Government of Pskov and Velikie Luki were included among the 15 oldest cities, to be top-priority restoration. At the end of 1945 was a master plan for reconstruction and development of the city per 100 thousand population, transforming it into the administrative and industrial center and a museum city. In 1957 he was united Pskov and Velikie area.

At the end of 1950 in Pskov and district centers revived industrial production. In the 1960s, began equipping old plants with new equipment, introduction of new technologies.

Further changes in the economy, agriculture and social Pskov were caused by common processes taking place in the country since the late 1990s. Pskov region once again became the border, side by side with the three sovereign nations: Belarus, Latvia and Estonia.

Geographical location, natural resources, climate

The area of ​​the region is 55,3 thousand square km, the length of the field from the north to the south is 380 km, from the west to the east is 260 km.

The Pskovskaya oblast is located in the northwest of the Russian plain, for it is typical rather dissected topography with alternating hills and ridge spaces, a large percentage of forest dominated by mixed forests, abundant lakes and a large number of small and medium-sized rivers conducive to sports fishing and boating.

On the territory of the Pskovskaya oblast  more than 3700 lakes, the largest of which is the pskovsko-Chudskoe Lake, with the area of ​​3521 square km. Into the lake fall more than 30 rivers and streams, follows p. Narva. Most of the lakes are in the southern region.

The climate of the Pskov region is temperate continental, with an unusually mild for such a short latitudes in winter (OK - 3 months) and warm summers. More precipitation falls in summer and early autumn.

In the industrial sector of the Pskovskaya oblast mainly occur processes of modernization of existing enterprises. Of the new industrial enterprises in the region in 2010 was a plant for processing of agricultural peat. In September 2011 the launch of the plant for the production of components for the tobacco industry, the Austrian company "Tann Pappir."

In order to attract investment in the industrial sector in the region of the Administration is actively working to establish industrial parks "Moglino" (Pskov Region) and "Stupnikovo" (Pskov). The industrial park will be designed for the construction of high-tech and environment-friendly industries, as well as the development of modern logistics centers and warehouses. Regional Administration is working with the Ministry of Economic Development for the award of the park "Moglino" status of a special economic zone of industrial type.

Agriculture

The basis of agriculture is dairy cattle breeding, the production of vegetables and potatoes and flax.

Transportation

 The length of roads paved (including departmental road for large and medium organizations) - 10,5 thousand km. Major CAR road: M20 "Pskov" (Zaplyuse, Pskov, Ostrov, Opochka, and the Nevel Pustoshka) M9 "Baltic" (Cunha, The Great Luke Novosokolniki, Idritsa and Sebej) The operational length of public railways is 1,1 thousand km. All railway lines are not electrified (on diesel traction) and the predominantly single-track. Main lines are St. Petersburg-Pskov-Pytalovo-Rezekne-Daugavpils, Vilnius (in Plyussa, Struga and Red Island) St. Petersburg-bottom-Vitebsk (via Bezhanitsy, Loknya, and the Nevel Novosokolniki) Moscow Rzhev Great Luke-Riga (in Kunyu, Novosokolniki, Pustoshka, Idritsa and Sebej) Water transport Inland waterways, there are 503 km. Of them, shipping routes Chudsko-Pskovskoye Lake - 403 km. Navigable tributaries and lakes: the Great at 34 kilometers, Bile at 31 km, Black on 18 km and small areas in other tributaries. It has  a fishing fleet, a large number of fishing bases.

 Air traffic In Pskov, opened an international airport of Pskov ("Cross") for medium-haul passenger and cargo aircraft with a total weight of up to 250 tons in 2009 flying to Moscow and Riga. The airport Great Luky. The main transport hubs of Pskov, the Great Luky and Pustoshka.

Types of tourism

• Cultural and educational

• Event

• Health

• Business

• Religious

• Environmental

• Hunting and Fishing

• Active

 Famous People

Alexander Pushkin (May 26 (6 June) 1799, Moscow - January 29 (February 10) 1837 - Russian writer

• Olga (Princess Kiev) - Kiev Prince Igor's wife and mother of Prince Svyatoslav. her name is connected with the first mention in the annals of Pskov (903 year), it is considered the founder of Trinity Cathedral in Pskov. The first Russian ruler to adopt Christianity prior to the Baptism of Russia.

• Dovmont Prince - Prince of Pskov

• Vsevolod Mstislavich - Prince of Novgorod

• Euphrosynus Pskov (in the world - Eliezer) - saint of the Russian Church, the founder of the Savior Monastery Elizarovsk

• Monk Filofey - a learned monk, who first coined the term "Moscow - the Third Rome"

• Salos Nicola - Pskov fool

• His Holiness Patriarch Tikhon - Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia

• Nikolay Guryanov - one of the most famous in modern Russian Orthodox 93-year old man

• Basil Nikitich Tatishchev - historian and statesman, an associate of Peter I, the author of the first scientific work on the country's history, received unofficial title of "father of Russian history and geography"

• Nazimov Mikhail - Decembrist, memoirist

• Ordin-Nashchokin Lavrentevich Athanasius - an outstanding Russian diplomat and statesman, who anticipated many of the conversion of Peter I

• Ferdinand Petrovich Wrangell - navigator and Arctic explorer, Admiral

• Tynyanov Yuri Nikolaevich - Russian and Soviet writer, playwright

• Muyzhel Viktor - Russian writer

• Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky - Russian composer

• Benjamin A. Kaverin - (real name Silber), writer. Author of the novel "Two Captains"

• Yamschikova Margarita Vladimirovna - Russian and Soviet writer

• Sofya Vasilievna Kovalevskaya - Russian mathematician, writer and publicist

• Vinogradov Ivan Matveevich - mathematician, Academician

• Bradis Modestovich Vladimir - Soviet mathematician, teacher, correspondent member of USSR Academy of Sciences (1955), Honored Scientist of RSFSR (1957)

• Rokossovsky Konstantin Konstantinovich - outstanding Soviet military leader Marshal

• Spegalsky Yuri Pavlovich - researcher of ancient architecture, the restorer

• Kikoin Isaak Konstantinovich - a Soviet physicist, academician of the USSR

  • Janis Rainis  - Latvian poet and playwright

Zinovy ​​Gerdt • E. - Soviet and Russian film and theater actor, People's Artist of the USSR

• Chursina Lyudmila Alekseevna - Soviet and Russian film actress.

• Oxana Fedorova - "Miss Universe 2001"

Phones for communication in emergencies

Help Desk telephone line - (8112) 09

Information Service - (8112) 053

Fire - (8112) 01

Police - (8112) 02

Ambulance - (8112) 03

MOE - (8112) 051

Sources of information on tourism opportunities in the region

• Tourist Information Centre

Pskov Address: 3 Lenina square

Tel.: (953) 242 -5700, (8112) 72-2532

e-mail: infopunktpskov@ya.ru

• Information Center

Location: The Kremlin 4, clerks of the Chamber, 1st floor.

Tel.: (8112) 72-4574

e-mail: museum-60@mail.ru

www.museums.pskov.ru

Hours: 10:00-18:00 seven days a week