The Republic of Ingushetia
The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Republic of Ingushetia
Federal District: The Southern Federal District
Area: 147 700 km2
Population: 412 500 persons.
Emblem of the Republic Ingushetia
Flag of the Republic Ingushetia
The Republic of Ingushetia — the subject of the
Official capital is Magas, the main towns - Nazran, Malgobek.
It is the youngest republic of the Russian Federation and was formed on June 4, 1992. On the west it borders North Ossetia, on the east the Chechen Republic, in the south Georgia.
Population - 412.5 thousand people. (01.01.2011) Density - 147.7 pers. / km².
Ethnic groups: Ingush, Russian, Chechens, Turks.
The republic has 45 settlements.
Among the mountaineers of the Caucasus the Ingush are one of the most ancient and indigenous peoples. The first mention of the Ingush can be found in early historical sources like the "Geography" of Strabo, from the I century AD, where they were known as the "Gargar". In other sources they are known as: "dzurdzuki", "gligvi" and "kisti". In 1395 the dzurdzuk union was destroyed during the march of Tamerlane to the North Caucasus., The rest of the population took refuge in the mountains. In the XV century the Ingush attempted to return to the plains. However, in the second half of the XVI century, as a result of the campaign of Kabardian Prince Temryuk in December 1562, the Ingush were forced to leave again for the mountains. During this period the spread of Islam through Chechnya and Dagestan began. But it did not fully take hold until the middle of the XIX century, because of continued pagan customs and rituals. The Ingush tribes – Galgaevskoe, Tsorinskoe, Dzheyrahovskoe, Orsthoevskoe, Fyappinskoe (Kist), - who lived in the mountains, began to return to the plains in the XVI-XVII centuries, mainly to the Tara valley, where at the end of the XVII century the village of Angusht was founded. The relocation of the plains, was mostly completed in the first half of the XIX century. In March of 1770 Ingushetia joined the Russian Empire. In 1810 the fortress “Nazran” was laid. After the October Revolution in Russia in November 1917 an independent Mountain Republic was proclaimed, uniting many peoples of the North Caucasus, including the Ingush. During the Great Patriotic War, more than 6,000 Ingush officers and soldiers fought. Some 2,000 of them were killed. 27 Ingush were presented with the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. The separate 255th Chechen-Ingush Cavalry Regiment was formed and fought in the 51st Army. On February 23, 1944 the Ingush were deported to Kazakhstan and Central Asia. In 1956, restrictions were lifted and they were able to return home. June 4, 1992 the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR adopted the Law "On formation of the Republic of Ingushetia in the Russian Federation."
Geographical location, natural resources and climate
Ingushetia is located on the northern slopes of the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains and the adjacent small ranges - Terek, Sunzha and Skalistaya. The length from north to south is 144 km, from west to east it is 72 km. In the north the terrain is steppe, in the south it is mountainous, and consists of peaks separated by valleys and gorges. In the northern part of the republic there is a part of Sunzha Alhanchurtskoy valleys. In the central part – Sunzha and Assa river valleys. The southern part of the country is covered by the Caucasus Mountains. The highest point is Mount Shan (4500 m). Other high points in mountainous Ingushetia include Mount Tsey-Loam (3170 m), Myat-Loam (3000 m) and Mount Hahalgi (3032 m).The length of the Caucasus Mountains in this region is 150 km. In Ingushetia there are rivers such as the Sunzha, Assa, Fartanga, Armkhi, Guloyhi, Lyazhgi, etc. The total area of the river basin is 3073 km. The rivers belong to the basin of the Terek. Mineral resources consist of oil. There are geologically proven oil reserves of about 11 million tons and probable reserves of more than 60 million tons. There is also natural gas, marble, dolomite brick, clays of high quality, thermal healing waters and mineral waters of the "Borjomi". The climate is either continental or alpine, depending on the height above sea level. Average temperatures range from 3 to 10° C and in July between 21-23°C. Rainfall is up to 1200 mm per year.
The most advanced oil production companies are: "Ingushneftegazprom", petrochemical, chemical "Khimprom", gas processing and metal industry, a factory of lightweight alloys, "Vils" and low-power electric plant "NZEMM". More than 74.6% of total industrial production comes from oil. In 2003, the annual production was around 300 thousand tons, but in recent years (as of 2009), oil production fell to 50 tonnes. Oil production in the territory of Ingushetia started in 1915. The second largest industry of the republic is food. Confectionery company: "Russia", State Unitary Enterprise "Gorniy Rodnik", State Unitary Enterprise "Golden Achaluki" are all food-processing plants based on local agricultural resources. Work is also carried out in the following industrial enterprises: polygraph “Nazran”, a building materials factory, brickworks in the city of Nazran and village “Nesterovskaya”, and a furniture factory in “Ordzhonikidzevskaya”. Agriculture The main crops are corn, sunflowers, vegetables and potatoes, corn, wheat, oats, barley and sugar beets. The state owns no more than 25% of the public sector. There are about 900 peasant farms in the republic. Agricultural lands constitute to 222.2 thousand hectares, including 112.2 thousand hectares of arable land, perennial plantings 2.5 thousand hectares, hayfields - 9.6 thousand hectares and pastures - 97.9 thousand hectares. In the republic there are 115 large and medium-sized agricultural enterprises.
The territory of Ingushetia is a part of the North Caucasian railway network and contains a highway of federal importance: "Caucasus" with a length of 39 kilometers. The total length of road about 900 km, including asphalt - 651 km, gravel - 250 km. 30 km north-east of the town of Magas, on the western outskirts of the village Ordzhonikidzevskaya, the airport "Magas" is located.
Things to do
• The city of Magas.
• The city of Nazran.
• Dzheyrahsko-Asinsky State Museum-Reserve.
• Nazir Mankiev (born January 27, 1985) - Russia's Greco-Roman style wrestler, a member of the Russian national team since 2004. Olympic Champion 2008, World Championships bronze medalist in 2007, Champion of Russia in 2008.
• Islam Timurziev (born January 9, 1983) - Russian amateur boxer, world-class athlete, winner of the junior championships in Russia and Europe (2001), champion of Russia (2004), World Cup winner (2005), European Champion (2006).
• Salman Oziev (1904-2002) - poet, writer, one of the founders of the Ingush alphabet. Member of the Union of Soviet Writers. Veteran of the Civil War with cavalier orders and medals.