The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Privolzhsky Federal District
Area: 43 352 km2
Population: 1 373 236 persons.
Emblem of Penza region
Flag of Penza region
Only Moscow oblast can contend with Penzensky Krai in the number of antique estates. Manor ensembles of Kurakiny and Golitsiny (XVIII cent.) dukes, Ustinovy's (XIX) and V.N. Voyejkov's palace (the beginning of XX) are of great historical, cultural and artistic value.
And that's not without a reason. The nature of that krai has long been attracting people. Here everything is filled with romance and some stunning harmony between nature and humans. Everyone should come Penza oblast to visit the heritage of the Russian culture – the state Lermontov museum – Tarkhany reserve. It is included into the list of especially valuable cultural heritage sites of Russia. Here the mysterious and great Russian poet M. Lermontov spent half of his life.
And just imagine the merry time you'll spent taking part in theatrical shows of the Russian matchmaking that are held by the “Tarkhany” museum employees! Quite close to it one can see the memorial estate of V. G. Belinsky. You can't even imagine how many new fascinating things you'll learn about the lives of these men of genius.
Please, make sure to visit K. A. Savitsky's art gallery. It's famous for being one of the oldest in Russia, the second oldest art museum of the Russian province and the contemporary of the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow and the Russian museum in St. Petersburg.
Also you'll be amazed by the state Penzensky united local history museum. It's one of the oldest scientific educational institutions in the Volga region. Nowadays in the main museum fund there are about 150 thousand museum pieces.
Those who enjoy A. Kuprin's works may derive pleasure from visiting his museum situated in Narovchat – the place where the writer was born and spent his early years.
And, of course, you'll be raptured by the beauty of the Troitse-Skanov convent, this priceless pearl of the region. Even the most sophisticated travellers are amazed by how fair it is.
Everyone will find his own secret of irresistibility of hospitable Penzenskaya land that attracts all the people keen on gaining new life experience and wishing to touch the beauty.
The Penza oblast is the subject of the Russian Federation.
Administrative center — Penza.
Neigbours with the Ulyanovsk, Saratov, Tambov, Ryazan oblasts and the Republic of Mordovia.
The oblast was formed by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on February 4, 1939.
The resident population comprises about 1.4 million people.
The colonization of the middle lands of the Volga region dates back to the Upper Paleolithic. But the whole-scale colonization of that territory (including Penzensky Krai) started during the Mesolithic, the middle stone age when the bow and the arrows have been invented – about 10-5 millenium BC. Mesolithic encampments were discovered in the river Vysha upper reaches (Zemetchinsky region), in Penza suburbs, at the banks of the Sura, the Moksha, the Hopra. In the second half of IV millenium BC new inhabitants appear in the southern part of Penzensky Krai from the steppe Volga region. Those were settled cattle-breeders. In the III millenium BC two tribes of kindred cultures – volosovskaya and imerskaya – inhabited the Penza land. In the II millenium BC there was a wave of cattle-breeder tribes migration that were familiar with bronze instrument making.
In X century the population of Penzensky Krai (the Mordovians, the Burtas) comes under the rule of the Khazar kaganat (VII – X cc.). The main pillar of the Kaganat was trade. One of the major trade routes passed through the Penzensky Krai. The process of the Mordovian nation took place on the territory of the Penzensky Krai. The ancestors of Mordovians, Finnish-speaking tribes of urban culture, inhabited the interfluve between the Volga and the Oka.
In the Old Russian chronicles the Mordovians were first mentioned in XI century. The Mordovian nation is divided into two groups: Moksha and Erzya; the southern, Penza group of the old Mordovian tribe became the basis for forming the Moksha tribe – the indigenous population of the Penzensky Krai. In XI century early feudal formation started to appear between Mordovians.
When the middle lands of the Volga region were included into the Russian state, the migration of Volga Finns into the east was intensified.
Volga Finns appeared at the territory o the Penzensky Krai at the beginning of 1570s as a part of moving Meshchera outposts that did the patron duty for the Moscow government.
In 1223 the Penzensky Krai happened to be in the area of the Mongol-Tatar invasion. In 1239 the Mordovians rebelled against the Mongol-Tatars, and that caused the counter attack on the Mordovians. In 1242 a feudal empire emerged on the upper and middle lands of the Volga region; in XIII century the Russians began to call it the Golden Horde.
In 1438 khan Ulu-Muhammed occupied Kazan and announced the creation of the Khanate of Kazan. Later the middle lands of the Volga region, including all the Surya and Moksha areas were merged in the Khanate.
In 1552 the Khanate of Kazan ceased to be, and so the Penzensky Krai entered Russia as its south-eastern fringe. The Penzensky Krai was included into the Zasechnaya Cherta system that was highly developed in XVI – XVII centuries in the southern and south-eastern parts of the Russian country.
In 1636—1648 Kerenskaya, Verkhnelomovskaya, Nizhnelomovskaya, Insaro-Potizhskaya and Saransko-Artemanskaya chertas, and in 1676 – 1680 the Penzenskaya one. The cities Kerensk (1636), Verkhny Lomov (1636), Nizhny Lomov (1636), Insar (1647), Saransk (1641), Atemar (1639), Penza (1663), Mokshan (1663) and Ramzayevsky ostrov (1679) were built on those chertas.
In 1681 the Penzenskaya cherta was continued further east. Thus, by the end of XVII century the Penzensky Krai got an opportunity to fully use its advantageous geographical factor. The building of zasechnye chertas and fortresses lay the foundation of the Penzensky Krai colonization, that is, the process of its reclaming and populating.
The second step of the Penzensky Krai colonization is connected to Peter the Great's policies concerning the Black Sea region and building the fleet in Voronezh for which Penza state peasants gave away shipbuilding timber.
When the town of Petrovsk was founded, the southern part of the Penzensky Krai also came under protection. On December 12, 1796 Penzenskaya Guberniya was established, and part of Saratovskaya was attached to it. On March 5, 1797 Penzenskaya Guberniya was relinquished.
As a result of the February revolution in 1917 councils of workmen's, soldiers' and officers' deputees, and later – of peasants' deputees. In April 1917 the single council was created together with the temporary Penza guberniya executive committee.
The Great Patriotic War has a special place in the world history. During the war years the a oblast was out of the battle lines. More than 300 thousand inhabitants of the Penza oblast joined the army, and more than 190 thousand of them died. A valuable contribution for defeating the German fascist invaders was also made by peaceful workers of the Penza oblast.
In 1941—1942 about 50 industrial institutions were evacuated, including 13 machine plants; rocket launcher sets, ammunition, military cloth, felt boots and skis were sent from the Penza oblast to the front. 25 % of all the mortar shells, air bombs, artillery shells that were made during the war years were produced at Penza plants. Because of the great contribution into the Victory Penza was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labour in 1985.
In the post-war years such branches of industrial production as engineering, instrument engineering, building materials production, consumer goods manufacturing and food processing.
There are several large scientific-research institutes with leading scientists as well as computation and measuring equipment specialist. The majority of institutes possess unique technologies, unparalleled calibrating and testing equipment.
The Penza oblast in its present borders was established on February 4 in 1939. It is situated on the East European Plain (also known as the Russian Plain); it occupies the middle and the western parts of the Volga upland.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate:
The relief of the surface is flat, slightly hilly. The lxtensive part of the territory is occupied by the western slopes of the Volga Upland. The Sursky Shishka Upland is the highest elevation area. Extreme western area belongs to the eastern edge of the Oka-Don Plain.
The Penza oblast is located between 42 ° and 47 ° of eastern longitude and between 54 ° and 52 ° of northern latitude.
It stretches from the west to the east for 330 km.
It stretches from the north to the south for 204 km.
The highest point is 341 m above sea level.
The territory of the Penza oblast is located on the Precambrian platform formed 2-2,5 billion years ago. A wide range of fossils in the outcrops of the Cretaceous System is of great interest : Shell mussels, parts of cephalopods indoskeletons — skids , needles and mineralized casts of sea urchins shells , parts of aquatic reptiles skeletons and other fossils. In the glacial deposits parts of skeletons of extinct mammals: mammoth (elephant family) and the woolly rhinoceros (family solipeds) were found.
The climate is temperate continental.
Spring droughts are typical as well as frequent summer and autumn droughts.
Leading industries are: machinery (instrumentation and computing devices, watches, powerful diesel engines, petrochemical machinery, agricultural machinery and various equipment for light industry), textiles (wool fabric, knitwear, footwear), food (meat, butter, whole milk products, sand sugar).
Agriculture of the region is a highly profitable sector of the economy. The leading role belongs to the production of grain (more than 60% of the area). Sugar beets, potatoes, fodder grass, corn, sunflower, hemp are grown in great volume, in suburban areas — there vegetables are also grown.
The Penza Oblast has a developed network of railways and highways, airlines, providing good communication both within the oblast and other regions of the country.
In the Penza region there has been formed a strong transportation system. Major railroads of the country - Kuibyshev and Southeast, partly Moscow run through the region. The operational length of railways for general use is 828 km. They connect Penza with the Centre and South of Russia, the Volga region and Ukraine, the Southern Urals, Siberia, Kazakhstan, Central Asia, the Far East. Railway stations operate in the cities of Penza, Kuznetsk, Serdobsk, Kamenka and others . The air lines of national importance pass through the Penza oblast . In the city of Penza there is an airport. Road network area is 9 thousand kilometers. The most important of them are: Moscow-Chelyabinsk, Volgograd, Nizhny Novgorod, Penza, Tambov. All the district capitals and most settlements have a reliable road access.
Types of tourism:
· Cultural and educational
· Hunting and fishing
Places of interest
· The State Lermontov reserve museum “Tarkhany”
· Troitse-Skanov cloister
· Nikolsky museum of CrystalThe Penza oblast art gallery named after K. A. Savitsky
· The Penza museum of the one painting
· The oblast drama theater named after A. V. Lunacharsky
· Museum of V. E. Meyerhold
· The Penza zoo
· The Volga region forest-steppe
Arboretum “Morozovsky” ANRadischev five-domed Trinity Cathedral 18 th century
· Meyerhold Vsevolod Emilyevich — a famous theatre director
· Vyazemsky Pyotr Andreyevich – a Russian poet and critic
· Krylov Ivan Andreyevich – a famous Russian fable writer
· Saltykov-Shchedrin Mihkail Evgrafovich — a Russian writer
· Kuprin Aleksandr Ivanovich – a Russian writer
· Leskov Nikolay Semyonovich – a Russian writer
· Zagoskin Mikhail Nikolayevich – a Russian writer
· Belinsky Vissarion Grigoryevich – an outstanding Russian theatre and literature critic and a publicist
· Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich – a marshal of the Soviet Union, a commander and a military strategist
· Burdenko Nikolay Nilovich – a surgeon, neurosergeon, the first USSR Academy of Medical Sciences president
· Klyuchevsky Vasily Osipovich – a Russian historian and educator
· Arkhangelsky Aleksandr Andreyevich – a composer and choir conductor
· Kadomtsev Boris Borisovich – a physicist, an academic, the author of works on controlled nuclear fusion
· Magnitsky Vladimir Aleksandrovich – a geoscientist, an academic, the author of works on internal structure of the Earth exploration
· Masalskaya Nina Nikolayevna – a theatre actress, a People's artist of the USSR
· Pudovkin Vsevolod Illarionovich – a film director, one of the Russian cinema founding father, a cinema theorist and a People's artist of the USSR
Emergency phone numbers
Penza area code - 8412
Emergency urban services
Penza fire protection service - 01
Penza police - 02
Penza ambulance - 03
Penza united on-call monitoring service (coordination of all city services actions) - 05, 56-33-79, 56-51-12
Penza urban telephone network inquiry service - 09
Penza State Road Traffic Safety Inspection hotline 63-26-12, 63-07-31 — voicemail
Penza suicide and crisis hotline 55-56-46
The Russian ministry of Emergency situations territorial bodies
The Russian ministry of Emergency Penza rescue service 52-09-09, 56-28-66
Sources of information on region tourist facilities
Sources of information on region tourist facilities – a website on tourism and recreation in Penza oblast: www.welcome2penza.ru
Megia-guide websites (tamasha.su), (gdevpenze.narod.ru).