The Republic of Buryatia
The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Republic of Buryatia
Federal District: The Siberian Federal District
Area: 351 334 km2
Population: 1 029 000 persons.
Emblem of the Republic of Buryatia
Flag of the Republic of Buryatia
The Republic of Buryatia — the subject of the Russian Federation
The administrative center — Ulan-Ude.
Date of formation — May 30, 1923.
Buryatia is bordered with Tuva in the south-west, in the west and north-west — with the Irkutsk Oblast, in the east — with the Chita Oblast. In the south it borders with Mongolia.
The population is 1,029,000 people. 60% of the population lives in urban areas. The Buryats, the Russians, the Ukrainians and the Tatars dominate among ethnic groups.
The republic has 20 districts, 6 cities, 34 urban villages.
Since 1936 the official name of Buryatia — the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Because of the reorganization of the administrative structure of the East-Siberian region in 1937 a number of areas were excluded from the Republic, and two Buryat autonomous districts were formed on its base that were included in the neighboring to Buryatia administrative oblasts: the Agin in the Chita Oblast and the Ust-Orda in the Irkutsk Oblast.
The Soviet period in the history of Buryatia is firmly linked with all bright and dark events experienced by the entire country. During the decades of the Soviet rule a highly-developed agro-industrial economy was established in the republic. There are approximately 60 branches of the economy, including such important ones as aircraft, machinery, energy, coal, mining, timber types of industry. Most large factories on the territory of Buryatia produce products of defensive use that led to a certain country's isolation from the rest of the world.
The sovereignty of the Buryat Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed on the 8thof October 1990. At the same time the rejection of the status of the autonomous republic was declared. March 27, 1991 the Parliament of Buryatia excluded definitions the "Soviet" and "Socialist" from the Republic’s name and it became known as "The Republic of Buryatia". The sovereign republic has its own constitution, the legislative and executive power. The first president in the history of Buryatia was elected in 1994.
Different religions and confessions peacefully live side by side in Buryatia. The most common and traditional of them are Buddhism and Orthodoxy. The center of Buddhism in Russia is in Buryatia. The first Buddhist nunnery is being built.
The indigenous population of the republic is the Buryats.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate
The Republic of Buryatia is situated in the center of the Asian continent, between the taiga regions of the Eastern Siberia and the vast steppes of Mongolia. The territory is mountainous (height is up to 3,491 meters), the nature of the relief is divided into the Eastern Sayan (height is up to 3 491 meters, Munku-Sardyk Mount), the Baikal mountain area (with the ridges of Hamar-Daban, Ulan-Burgas, Barguzinsky, Baikal), Selenga midlands (with ranges of Tsagaan-Daban, Tsagaan-Hurtey, Zagansky) and Vitim plateau. Vast intermountain depressions Gusinoozersk, Udi, Barguzin, Verkhneangarsk are situated within these mountain systems.
The large part of the lake Baikal refers to Buryatia. Major rivers, flowing into the Lake Baikal are Selenga, Barguzin and Upper Angara. In the western part of Buryatia run Irkut, Kitoy, Oka (Yenisei basin). Vitim River is a tributary of the Lena River.
Minerals - coal, graphite, bauxite, gold, iron ore, asbestos, tungsten, and apatite.
The climate is continental that is there are cold winters and hot summers, bright sunny days and dust storms in the Republic. Average temperatures: January 24 °C, July +17 °C. Rainfall is about 300 mm per year. Vegetation period is 90-155 days. Permafrost is typical for Buryatia. Most of the territory (80%) is covered by taiga.
On the northern slopes of Transbaikalian ridges mainly grow deciduous, sometimes cedar and fir forests, on the southern slopes — pine ones.
The mountain taiga and forest areas are inhabited by sable, squirrel, weasel, wolverine, lynx and bear. Rivers and lakes are rich in fish (omul, grayling, whitefish, and trout).
Several nature reserves are created in the Republic: the Barguzinsky and Dzherginsky reserves, the Transbaikalia natural park. The main industrial centers of Buryatia are Ulan-Ude, Gusinoozersk, Zakamensk; Selenginsk, Kamensky.
The main industries are engineering and metalworking, power generation, timber, woodworking and pulp and paper industry, ferrous metallurgy, fuel, food and light industries, alcoholic beverages and others.
Livestock (cattle, fine-wool sheep breeding, pig breeding, poultry), grain and forage crops, potato and vegetable production, trapping, fur farming are developed in agriculture. The main fishing area – the Lake Baikal (omul is found).
The Trans-Siberian Railway (Ulan-Ude - junction of the East-Siberian Railway), the Baikal-Amur main line, federal highways go through the territory of the republic. The length of railways is 2,044 km in Buryatia. The operational length of road is about 10 thousand km., there is one airport (Ulan-Ude Baikal International Airport) in Buryatia but it has some limitations, concerning adopted air transport.
The Republic of Buryatia has a great amount of natural and architectural monuments. The most popular are:
The King’s Gate arch in Ulan-Ude
The Buryat State House of Opera and Ballet in Ulan-Ude
The central street "Arbat" in Ulan-Ude
Valley of the Volcanoes
- Dorji Banzarov (1822—1855) — the first Buryat scientist.
- Dugarzhal Dashiev (1939—2003) — an opera singer, People's Artist of the USSR (1986)
- Larisa Sakhyanova (1930—2001) — a ballet dancer, People's Artist of the USSR (1963).
- Gombozhap Tsydynzhapov (1905—1980) — an actor, director, People's Artist of the USSR (1940).
- Shoydagbaeva, Galina Badmazhapovna (b.1953) – an opera singer, People's Artist of the USSR (1990).
- Baudorzha Yampilov (1916—1989) — a composer, People's Artist of the USSR (1983).
- Radna Sahaltuev (b. 1935) — a cartoonist, illustrator, animator.