The Republic of Bashkorstan
The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Republic of Bashkortostan
Federal District: The Privolzhsky Federal District
Area: 142 947 km2
Population: 4097,1 persons.
Coat of arms of the Republic of Bashkortostan
Flag of the Republic of Bashkortostan
The Republic of Bashkortostan — is the subject of the Russian Federation.
Capital - Ufa.
Other large cities: Sterlitamak, Salavat, Neftekamsk.
Bashkortostan was the first autonomous republic within the RSFSR, and the only one established on a contractual basis. In 1990 it was transformed into the Republic of Bashkortostan. It borders Tatarstan, Udmurtia, Perm region, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk and Orenburg regions. Population - 4,072,102 people (2010).
The population density: 28.4 people./ Km² (2010) The share of urban population - 60.4% (2010) Ethnic Groups: Russian - 36.1% (2010), Bashkirs - 29.5% (2010) Tartars - 25,4% (2010).
The country has 54 administrative districts: 21 cities, 2 towns (Chishmy and Priyutovo), 828 rural administrations and 4674 rural settlements.
Bashkortostan is located in the southern Ural Mountains, on the border between Europe and Asia, it is named after the indigenous people - Bashkirs. The Slavic name of the republic is “Bashkortostan”. Statehood for the Bashkirs has its roots from the IX to the beginning of XIII century. During this time the formation of Union of Bashkir tribes began. In the X century. Islam spread among Bashkirs, which became, in the XIV century, the dominant religion. Between 1219 and1220 Bashkir lands became a part of the empire of Genghis Khan. In the middle of the XVI century Bashkirs adopted Russian citizenship on the basis of an agreement with the government of Ivan the Terrible. They established economic and cultural ties between themselves and the Russian settlers. In 1574 the future capital of Bashkortostan, the city of Ufa was founded. In the first half of XIX century. the main occupation of the Bashkirs was still semi-nomadic cattle herding. In November, 1917 the autonomy of Bashkortostan was proclaimed inside the Russian Soviet Republic. On october 11, 1990 the Supreme Soviet of the republic proclaimed the Declaration of State Sovereignty, which confirmed the status of the republic as a democratic state by law, and since February 1992 it took the name of the Republic of Bashkortostan. A parliament was formed in the republic which is the State Assembly “Kurultai”, consisting of two chambers. On December 12, 1993 the first President of the Republic of Bashkortostan - Murtaza Rakhimov - was elected. On July 19, 2010 Rustem Khamitov. Became the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Today, the Republic of Bashkortostan is a democratic state by law in the Russian Federation, expressing the will and interests of the multinational people of the country. The official languages in Bashkortostan are Russian and Bashkirian.
Geographical location, natural resources and climate
The area of the Republic of Bashkortostan is 143 thousand square km It borders Perm and Sverdlovsk regions to the east, Chelyabinsk in the south-east, Orenburg region in the south and south-west, and in the west with the Republic of Tatarstan. On the north-west it borders the Udmurtskaya Republic. Bashkortostan is characterized by a variety of natural conditions and resources. Hilly and ridged plains occupy half of the area of the republic while mountainous Bashkir (Southern) Ural occupies just over ¼. It lies at the crossroads of Europe and Asia and is in the transition zone of the East European Plain to the Ural Mountains. From the Urals to the West Siberian Plain Bashkortostan’s nature combines the features of large, different heterogeneous expanses. Flora and fauna is a patchwork of the Volga-Kama, Ural and Siberia and Kazakhstan species. The territory of Bashkortostan lies within four of the geographic temperate zones: mixed forests, deciduous forests, forest-steppe and steppe zones. Forests cover over one third of the republic - 73%. The steppe and forest-steppe is 31% black soil. The country has more than 13 thousand rivers and 2.7 thousand lakes, ponds and reservoirs. Major rivers: Belaya (Agidel) (1430 km) and its tributaries, Ufa (918 km), Dema (535 km), Nugush (235 km), Sim (239 km), Ashkada (165 km), Sterlya (94 km). The largest lakes are: Aslykul and Kandrykul.
Bashkortostan is one of the leading Russian regions for the refining of oil and petrochemical industries. The republic is responsible for one sixth of the primary oil refining in Russia. The main industrial centers are: the city of Ufa, Sterlitamak, Salavat, Neftekamsk, Tuymazy, Oktyabr. A network of pipelines was established – Tuymazy-Ufa, Ishimbay-Ufa, Navigation along the rivers Belaya and Ufa is also a feature.
In Bashkortostan almost one in every three people lives in the countryside. The Republic ranks among the top three regions of the Russian Federation for agriculture. For the gross harvest of grain it is in the top three, for the production of meat in the top two and for potatoes and milk it occupies first place.
In terms of the density of traffic the Republic of Bashkortostan is second only to the Moscow region. On the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan there are major roads and railway lines. The length of public roads is growing from year to year. Major highways are: Highway M5 "Ural" going to Ufa, M7 "Volga", the road R314 Ufa – Orenburg road R316 Sterlitamak – Magnitogorsk, Ufa – Sterlitamak, Ufa – Beloretsk, Ufa – Birsk – Yanaul, Sterlitamak - Raevka - Belebey - Tuymazy - Bugulma, Ufa - Sermenevo - Baymak – Sibai. They all link the various parts of the republic with the capital. There are railways through the Republic of Bashkortostan. Among them are: the Kuibyshev Railway, which connects the western and central parts of the country with the Urals and Siberia. The Gorky Railway crosses the northern part of the Republic. For trans-Ural regions there is the South Urals Railroad. Due to its geographical location, republic is an important transit link, especially in terms of pipelines and road transport. Through the territory of the republic pipelines were laid to transfer crude oil, petroleum and natural gas. Bashkortostan’s waterways play an important role in freight transport. The length of the waterways is suitable for navigation in the Republic and is 1018 km. River vessels can travel along the rivers Belaya Agidel and Ufa “Karaidel”. By air Bashkortostan is connected with dozens of cities across Russia, CIS countries, as well as Hurghada, Sharm el-Sheikh, Istanbul, Barcelona, Dalaman, Istanbul, Tashkent, Khujand, Bangkok, Dushanbe, Yerevan, Rimini, Tel Aviv, Larnaca, Goa, Dubai. The largest airport in the country is in the capital city of Ufa. Things to do. - The "Shulgan-Tash Reserve” - Shikhany - Bashkir National Park - "Krasniy Kluch" - The waterfall Gadelsha -Pobeda cave
• Aksakov, Sergei T. (1791-1859) - a famous writer of classic memoirs, a theatrical and literary critic, and journalist.
• Vinogradov, Vladimir (1955-2008) - one of the pioneers of a modern banking system in Russia.
• Gubin, Andrey (1974) - Russian pop singer. • Ismagilov, Zagir Garipovich (1917-2003) - an outstanding Bashkir composer.
• Nasretdinova, Zaituna Agzamovna (1923-2009) - a ballet dancer, People's Artist of USSR (1955).
• Nesterov, Mikhail (1862-1942) - a famous painter, member of the Peredvizhniki artistic movement.
• Nureyev, Rudolf Hametovich (1938-1993) – a world-renowned dancer, choreographer, director of ballets.
• Ramazanova, Zemfira Talgatovna (1976) - Russian singer, composer.
• Tyulkin, Alexander Beletsky (1888-1980) - painter.
• Khromchenko, Evelyn L. (born February 27, 1971) - Editor in Chief of the Russian edition of the magazine «L'Officiel» of one of the most respected publications in the world of fashion, TV Channel.
• Chudov Maxim (1982) - Russian athlete, a member of the Russian biathlon Olympic team, he took part in the Olympics in Turin. Three-time world champion in 2007 in the men's relay race, in 2008, he won the sprint and men's relay. Three times World Cup silver medalist in the pursuit (2007, 2008, 2009). Bronze World Cup medalist in the mass-start (2008). Twice world champion in the summer biathlon (Ufa, 2006). Honored with the Master of Sports of Russia.
• Yuri Shevchuk Yulianovich (1957) - Soviet and Russian musician, poet, composer, artist and producer, founder, leader and sole permanent member of the DDT. The founder and head of the "Theater of DDT."People's Artist of the Republic of Bashkortostan (2005).
• Spivakov Vladimir Theodorovich (1944) - Russian violinist and conductor, founder and director of the orchestra "Moscow Virtuosos", People's Artist of USSR (1990).