The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Far Eastern Federal District
Area: 164 673 km2
Population: 1 982 persons.
Coat of Arms of Primorsky Krai
Flag of Primorsky Krai
Primorsky Krai is a subject of the Russian Federation.
Its administrative centre is Vladivostok.
Primorsky Krai was established on 20 October 1938.
It shares its border with Khabarovsk Krai in the north, PRC in the west, DPRK in the south-west; in the south and in the east it is washed by the Sea of Japan. The Peter the Great Gulf is the largest.
Population: approx. 1,9 mln.
Primorsky Krai comprises 12 urban districts and 22 municipal areas, 29 urban settlements and 116 rural settlements are located on this territory.
More than 30,000 years people came to Primorye and these were mammith hunters. Fishermen and sailor who went seagoing appeared here much later; they used to catch tuna and other fish, gather shell-fish and plants, hunt deer and wild boars, breed pigs and dogs. According to ancient Chinese sources, the coast of the future Primorsky Krai was densely populated. It is proved by the numerous monuments that were found here. Tunguska state Kingdom Bokhay (698—926) and Chzhurchzhen State (1115—1234) that ever existed in the territory of Primorye are the most famous. Ancient civilizations were ruined by the Mongol Invasion, Primorye was abandoned and demolished, the survived people went to taiga and fenced themselves off the outer world with the mountain range of Sikhote-Alin and froze their own development for centuries.
Up to the arrival of Russians the territory had remained wild and forgotten as it had never been affected by human. The first Russian explorers came to Primorye in the middle of the XVII century. These were trade and military expeditions. In 1655 Russian cossacks headed by Onufry Stepanov followed the Ussuri River and its tributaries. It was the time when the first posts, ostrogs, towns of Amurksy and Ussuriisky Krais were founded. Unfortunately, at that time Russia couldn't consolidate the newly opened land and by the Treaty of Nerchinsk between Russia and China signed in 1689 and had to resettle Russians from Priamurye to Zabaikalsk.
In the beginning of the XIX century Russian traders, cossacks, and peasants advanced to the interior of the Western Siberia and Far East. Russian ships explored the eastern shire of the Sea of Japan, Okhotsk and Bering Seas, made a description of the coasts, gulfs, bays, and other geographical objects.
Primorskaya Oblast with its centre in Nikolaevsk-on-Amur was established in 1856. 15 November 1859
In 1858—1860 Russia and China signed the Convention of Peking and the Treaty of Aigun concerning relationship of neighbouring states, trade and border in the Far East. It defined Amuro-Ussuriisky Krai as the constituent part of Russia and initiated exploring the southern part of the Russian Far East.
On 20 June 1860 Company 3rd Manoeuvre Battalion 4 that came to the region by the sailboat “Manchurian” and was headed by warrant officer N. V. Komarov made a lodgement in Zolotoy Rog Bay where they founded an outpost Vladivostok that was the base naval point in the southern part of the territory. On 07 June 1880 Vladivostok was bestowed city status.
In 1903, a through railway service was opened via Siberia that let the settlers reach Vladivostok within 14-18 days in heated freight cars. The resettlement was, however, was interrupted by the outbreak of the October Revolution in 1917. After the establishment of the Soviet system, the government in Primorye changed many times, Japanese, American, and English troops made a lodgement there.
Primorsky Krai was established on 20 October 1938.
Geographical Position, Natural Resources, Climate
Primorsky Krai occupies southeasternmost region of Russia. It is situated in the southernmost region of the Far East on the seashore of the Sea of Japan.
Apart from the inland, Primorsky Krai comprises numerous islands: Russky, Popova, Putyatina, Reyneke, Rikord, Rimsky-Korasakov, Askold, Petrova and others.
The northernmost point of Primorsky Krai is situated near the source of the Dagda River (The Samarga tributary), and the southernmost point - in the estuary of the Tumannaya River (Tumangan, Tumyntszyan) on the border with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. The westernmost point is situated neat the source of the Novgorodovka River (Khasansky District) on the border with the People's Republic of China, the easternmost point is the cape Zolotoy on the coast of the Sea of Japan.
Free access to the Pacific Ocean, the peculiarities of the geopolitical situation, the vastitude and diversity of the territory make the geographical position of Primorsky Krai very advantageous.
Primorsky Krai is rich in natural resources. The peculiarities of the geologic development predetermined the foundation of fuel and energy and mineral resources; the geographical position, peculiarities of the relief and climate made for the abundance of land, water, water-power, timber, and recreation resources. Many valuable elements - chemical combinations, salts, metals - are dissolved in the sea water, and sea mineral resources can be found in the seafloor deposits.
The climate is moderate, monsoon. Winters are dry (humid), cold and clear. Springs are longstanding, cool, with frequent temperature variations. Summers are warm and humid; the maximum level of precipitation falls in summer. Autumns are, as a rule, warm, dry, and clear. The average temperature of July is +17оС…+26оС. Summers are the coldest on the coast of Tatar Strait in the north-east of Primorye. Summers are the hottest on the Prikhankayskaya Plain. The absolute peak of +41 is registered in Pogranichny District. The average temperature in January id from -8°С to -18°С in the seashore, and in combination with humidity and winds it is lowered twice; in the inland regions with a drier climate the temperature falls as low as -38°С. The coldest months are: January, February, March. The warmest months are: July, August, September, October. The level of precipitation is about 600-900 mm per year. Crop season is 120—200 days.
Industrial complex is the most highly developed branch of the industry of Primorye. The major branches are fish-processing and fish-canning, electric power engineering and coal mining, machine-building and ship-repairing, mining, timber and wood-working.
In Primorsky Krai there are nearly 1.5 mln ha of farmlands that all in all make 100 thousand animals of cattle, 40 thousand of pigs; sheep and goats are also bred; grain, potatoes, vegetables, meat, milk, eggs, as well as other kinds of agriproducts are produced. Some productions: that of soy beans, rice, animal breeding are of federal significance. Primorsky Krai is the first largest producer of honey in Russia.
A significant part of the agriproducts is processed at the food industry enterprises of the krai. Food industry is represented by horticultural, baking, confectionery, fat-and-oil, sugar, meat, oil-and-cheese, milk, and other branches. Fish industry is the major.
Vladivostok is the starting point of the longest railway in Russia - Trans-Siberian Railway. Its distance is more than nine thousand kilometres.
The ports of Primorsky Krai play an important role in the economy of Russia. One of the upcoming trends in the development of the ports is container shipping. The largest container terminals of the Russian Far East are situated in the territory of the krai. A container terminal in Vostochny port was set in operation in May 1976. Nowadays ООО "Eastern stevedoring company" functions in the territory of the port. The company is the member of Global Ports group owned by the Russian transport group "N-Trans" (formerly "Severstaltrans"). A container terminal in Vladivostok commercial seaport was set in operation in 1983. In 2003 ООО "Vladivostok Container Terminal" was established for purposes of the terminal development. The founders of the company are a transport group FESCO and ОАО "ВМТП".
In 2009, a load-factor bulk-oil complex was set in operation in Kozmino bay.
Types of Tourism
• Hunt and fishing
• Vladivostok fortress
• Sanctum "Cedar Honeydew"
• Temple of Protection of the Most Holy Mother of God
• Arc-Chapel in honour of Nicholas (Nicolaevsky Triumphal Arch)
• Memorial "To the Campaigners for the Soviet Regime in the Far East"
• Arseniev State United Museum
• Memorial Guard Submarine С-56 Decorated with the Order of the Red Banner
• Primorue State Picture Gallery
• Antiques Automobile and Motorcycle Museum
• Military-Historical Museum of the Pacific Fleet
• Primorye Academic Regional Theatre named after M. Gorky
• Vladimir Klavdievich Arseniev - outstanding Russian traveller, writer, Far East explorer
• Nikolai Nikolaevich Aseev - Russian and Soviet poet, script writer, Russian futurism figure
• Konstantin Dmitrievich Balmont - Symbolist poet , translator, essayist, one of the most prominent representatives of the Silver Age of Russian poetry
• Semen Mikhailovich Budenny - Soviet military leader, Civil War participant, commander of the First Cavalry Army, one of the first Marshals of the USSR, three times the Hero of the Soviet Union.
• David Davydovich Burlyuk - poet, artist, one of the founders of the Russian futurism
• Fyodor Fyodorovich Busse - archaeologist, ethnographer, bibliographer, chief of the resettlement administration, founder of the Society of Amurland Studies
• Lyudmila Alexandrovna Volkenshtein - participant of the political movement (1857—1906)
• Nikolai Georgievich Garin-Mikhailovsky - prose writer, railway engineer
• Fridolf Kirillovich Gek - skipper, captain of whaling ships, explorer of the Bering Sea and the Sea of Japan
• Vasily Efimovich Gluzdovsky - explorer of the Far East, educator
• Akim Yegorovich Dydymov - famous sailor and facilitator of whale fishery in the Far East
• Dmitry Mikhailovich Karbyshev - scientist, warrior, communist, Hero of the Soviet Union
• Sergei Georgievich Lazo - Russian revolutionist, one if the Soviet leaders in Siberia and the Far East, participant of the Civil War
• Vasily Petrovich Margaritov - in 1910—1914 the head of the city of Vladivostok
• Petr Nikolaevich Nesterov - pilot, originator of aerobatic flight, staff captain. He was the first to perform a number of aerobatics, including loop-the-loop on 27 August 1913
• Alexei Matveevich Pozdneev - Orientalist, participated in the expedition to Mongolia (in 1876) fitted by the Imperial Russian geographical society
• Mikhail Mikhailovich Prishvin - Russian and Soviet writer
• Konstantin Mikhailovich Stanyukovich - writer, in 70-80s was close to revolutionary circles, from 1881 a co-editor and in 1883—1884 the editor of "Delo" magazine. In 1884 he was arrested and exciled to Siberia accused of the connection to "Narodnaya Volya" ("The People’s Will" - a Russian left-wing terrorist organization)
• Konstantin Alexandrovich Sukhanov - campaigner for establishing Soviet regime in the Far East
• Alexandr Alexandrovich Fadeev - Russian and Soviet writer and public figure
• Petr Petrovich Shmidt - Lieutenant of the Blach Sea Fleet, the leader of Sevastopol Rebellion in 1905
• Alexei Petrovich Shoshin - Russian and Soviet military engineer, scientist and military leader, professor, Major General of the Russian Army
• Yakov Lazarevich Semenov - first civilian inhabitant of Vladivostok, starosta of Vladivostok, first entrepreneur, public figure
• Alexei Dmitrievich Startsev - merchant belonging to the top guild, manufactor, commercial advisor
• Mikhail Kuzmich Fedorov - marine sub-lieutenant, mechanic, the head of the city of Vladivostok
• Mikhail Ivanovich Yankovsky - large-scale farm operator, entrepreneur, scientist
The universal emergency telephone number in the European Union is 112.
• Fire Emergency — 01
• Police — 02
• Medical Ambulance — 03
• Gas Service — 04
• Dispatch Department of Primorsky Krai Administration (4232) 22-2333, (4232) 20-6206
• Duty officer of SI EMERCOM of Russia in Primorsky Krai — (4232) 43-2827
• Duty Officer of Vladivostok Search-and-Rescue Detachment of the Far-Eastern Regional Search-And-Rescue Detachment of EMERCOM of Russia — (4232) 38-9412
• Duty Officer of the Search-and-Rescue Team in Primorsky Krai — (4232) 37-1761
• Duty officer of Vladivostok City Search-and-Rescue Team — (4232) 21-2888
Acquisition Sources for Regional Tourist Opportunities
Russian EMERCOM Territorial Body
The main branch of EMERCOM of Russia in Primorsky Krai:
Vladivostok, Sukhanova St., 3, tel. (4232) 39-9999