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Khabarovsk

Far Eastern State Scientific LibraryAmur BridgeMonument of KhabarovKhabarovsk regional Museum

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Khabarovsk Territory

Federal District: The Far Eastern Federal District

Area: 386,4 km2
Population: 580 700 persons.


Description

Khabarovsk is a city in  Russia, the administrative center of Khabarovskiy Area and the Russian Federation Far East federal district , one of the laggest cities of te Far East.

Population: 580700 people.

The size of the city: 386,4 sq. km.

History

In 1858 a  military outpost was founded at the place of the city-to-be, it was named Khabarovka in the honor of the explorer of this area. In 1893, the village became a  city and got the name Khabarovsk. At that time Khabarovsk was the largest trade center on the Amur river. In 1897, the railway between Khabarovsk and Vladivostok was opened.

More than 350 years ago the Russian explorer Erofei P. Khabarov with a detachment of 70 people went from Yakutsk to explore new lands. Having come up the Lena River, Khabarov made the "Drawing of the Amur River" and reported to Moscow, writing:" ... Daurskaya land would be more profitable than the  Lena ... and against the whole Siberia there will be a place decorated and abundant ... "Since then the interest of  Russian rulers to the Far East has not abated.

The outpost was named Khabarovka in the honor of the explorer of this land. it was founded by the soldiers of the 13th Linear Siberian battalion, commanded by Captain Y. Dyachenko, on  May 13, 1858.

Khabarovka was founded in a  very convenient place at the confluence of the Amur and the Ussuri . Because of  that Khabarovka began to develop very fast. Furs and fishery as well as unequal exchange with the natives were very profitable and attracted many people from all over Russia. Already after six years since the foundation of Khabarovka a military topographer Mikhail Lubensky developed a plan  of the new settlement development..

After another four years Habarovka was connected to Vladivostok by a telegraph line. A few years later a river port was built. The township population increased nearly three times.  There emerged a need in schools and colleges. In 1873 the first elementary school was opened in Khabarovka.

By 1880, Khabarovka increased to the size of quite a large settlement. It was situated at the cross road of all means of communication from Vladivostok and the coast. Very soon it was decided to give Khabarovka the status of a city and in 1884 the capital of new Priamurskoe Governorate General was moved here from Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. At that time Khabarovka got its first coat of arms, which became the coat of arms of Governorate General.That's how it looked: "In a silver shield an azure post between two black hills with dark red flames. The shield is crowned by an ancient royal crown and surrounded by golden oak leaves joined by Alexander Ribbon". The black hills symbolized the Kamchatka volcanoes. The Khabarovka coat of arms belongs to the category of Honor heraldic emblems, as indicated by a vertical pole in the middle.

In 1893, the city was renamed into Khabarovsk. By that time it became the largest trade center on the Amur River. Here  merchants arranged their goods production, delivery and sale of. The development went on because merchants' needed a lot of buildings like  docks, warehouses, stores and shops, private houses. A part of buildings built at that time has survived to the present days and now is being reconstructed.

At the same time Khabarovsk became the scientific center of the Far East. On   February 11, 1894   the first meeting of the Amur department of the Russian Imperial Geographical Society was held here. In the same year the first Khabarovsk newspaper "Priamurskiye vedomosti" (The journal of the Amur region) was first issued. In autumn a  theatre was opened in the city. The system of education was also developing: in 1895 the Technical Railway College began to take pupils.

The railways were growing very fast. In 1897  started the railway communication between Khabarovsk and Vladivostok.

The popuation of the city increased very fast. Already to the end of XIX century it made up more than 15 000. In 1900 the telephone station began to work. At the same year the Khabarovsk Real College was opened. A new church was being built on the place of the old Innokentievskaya Church. It was funded by modest donations   from parishioners as well as money given by well-known urban merchants. Later the church had some rough days, but now it has been restored and is being reconstructed.

The industry of the city grew rapidly, a large number of small shops, which eventually developed into large industrial enterprises, appeared. In 1902 took place the admission ceremony of  of the regional workshop artillery system called s of Artillery "Arsenal". By the end of the century  in Khabarovsk already existed oil mills, 4 breweries, 12 brickyards, 4 saw mills and a cement plant. In those years different political movements emerged and strengthened in Russia. This could not affect the city of Khabarovsk, which at that time was quite large. In December 1905 a strike of the city postal and telegraph workers , that was actually a continuation of of the All-Russian political strike, took place here. The communication of Khabarovsk with the central parts of the country was interrupted for several days. It was done without the terrible consequences that occurred in major Russian cities. In 1906 appeared the Khabarovsk Social Democratic Party. In January it organized a massive demonstration dedicated to the anniversary of the "Bloody Sunday".

After moving the regional center together with Governor General and his office to Khabarovsk, military leadership of the Amur Military District — the commander and staff —  settled in the city. Khabarovsk also  became the military center of the Far East. In 1908 the base of the Amur Flotilla was created.

In 1913 the grand "Exhibition of Amur region to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty" dedicated also to the 55th anniversary of the city, took place in Khabarovsk.

By this time the construction of the Trans-Siberian railway, which would connect the Far East and Eastern Siberia to European Russia, was going at full tilt. The Ussuri (Khabarovsk-Vladivostok) and the Trans-Baikal Railways had already been built, the construction of the Amur railway began. The final link in the Trans-Siberian Railway was a railway bridge across the Amur River in Khabarovsk. Professor Lavr D. Proskuryakov designed this construction, very grand by the standards of that time. His project, as well as the Eiffel Tower, got the gold medal at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1908. The construction of the gigantic three-kilometer bridge, which was the final link of the Trans-Siberian Railway, was completed in 1916. The magnificent bridge across the Amur  has so far been the hallmark of Khabarovsk.

Geographical position

The city is located in Asia, in the southern part of the Middle Amur lowlands near the confluence of the Amur and the  Ussuri rivers.

The city is situated on the Amur steep right bank, the relief is varied and complex. The central part of Khabarovsk stretches along gently sloping ridges with an altitude of 70—90 meters above sea level and relative excess of 20—30 meters.

Industry

Khabarovsk industry is represented by the following sectors: engineering and metalworking, light industry and food industry.

Transportation

The Trans-Siberian railway goes through the city (the branch that leads to Baikal-Amur Mainline through Komsomolsk-on-Amur). Here there are four stations, including the largest passenger (Khabarovsk-1) and freight (Khabarovsk-2) on the railway. The named train “Okean” (Ocean) runs from Khabarovsk to Vladivostok. Local railing is carried out by electric trains.

In 2009 the reconstruction works on the cross-Amur bridge were finished; as a result to the two-way railways  a motor road was added.

The city is a joining point of federal highways M57 Amur (Chita-Khabarovsk), M60 Ussuri (Khabarovsk-Vladivostok), R454 Khabarovsk-Komsomolsk-on-Amur and the highway Vostok (Khabarovsk-Nakhodka) that is still being built.

In 1983 the motor-coach terminal for 500 passengers an hour was put in commission. Inter-city bus routes connect the city with central and eastern district regions as well as Primorye towns and the Jewish Autonomous Region.

With the help of a river port inland navigation company Amurskoye delivers cargo to the north; sea shipment by vessels for river-sea navigation are being developed. Air transportation is fulfilled through the Novy (has the status of an international since 1972) and the Maly airports that are situated at 10 km distance from the city centre. At the same place there's an aviation repair base.  

Air routes Japan – Europe belong to the Khabarovsk area of responsibility. The city transport system includes trams, trolleybuses, buses, taxis and route taxis.

Places of interestThe church of St. Innocent of Irkutsk.

·         Holy Transfiguration Cathedral (Svyato-Preobrazhensky). Opened in 2004. The church of St. Seraphim of Sarov

·         The monument to Count N. Muraviev-Amursky

Famous people

  Victor Yashin (1922-1952) – a Soviet pilot and a Hero of the Soviet Union

 EvgenyDikopoltsev (1921-1943) – a  Hero of the Soviet Union, the Sergeant of the Guards, studied at the Khabarovsk Pedagogical Institute

Nikolay Zadornov (1909-1992) - a Soviet writer, the winner of the Stalin Prize (1952), Honored Artist of the Latvian SSR

Vasily Blyukher (1890-1938) – the First Knight of the Order of the Red Banner, one of the Soviet Union Marshals