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Ulan-Ude

The gate of the Ethnographic Museum of peoples of TransbaikaliaHouse in the old VerkhneudinskThe Monument of LeninSt. Odigitrievsky Cathedral

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Republic of Buryatia

Federal District: The Siberian Federal District

Area: 347,6 km2
Population: 377 100 persons.


Description

Ulan-Ude — a city in the Eastern Siberia, the capital of Buryatia, located in a convenient place at the crossroads of Russia, China and Mongolia.

It was founded in 1666. It is a city since 1775.

Population: 377.1 thousand people (2010).

Total area of the city of Ulan-Ude is 347.6 sq. km

History

1666 is considered to be the moment of founding of the city, when a Russian Cossack detachment placed a small wooden house, named the Udinsky Cossack cabin, in the mouth of the Uda River, on the high rocky shore. Primarily it was created to collect a tribute from the local population. Location was well chosen. The cabin was on the crossroads between Russia and China and Mongolia. Wooded mountains and waterways served as good protection from all sides. Taking into account such a favorable geographical and strategic location of the Udinsky cabin, in 1860 the Moscow government decided to build a stockaded town. The cabin and part of the buildings was surrounded by high palisades. In 1689 construction was completed. Soon, in 1698, the Udinsky stockaded town was renamed to the city. The official name of the city — Verkhneudinsk was defined in the 30-ies of the XVIII century.

During the period of development of the Trans-Baikal territory and construction of the Siberian tract in 1726—1740, development of the Russian-Chinese trade and complete cessation of the military threat from the outside trade, transport and administrative purposes of the city were pushed into the foreground.  In 1775 the Senate handed the royal coat of arms to Verkhneudinsk.

In 1793 the first elementary school was opened in the city. In 1806 it was converted into a district specialized school.  In 1916 there were 27 educational institutions in Verkhneudinsk. In the XIX century the first classical brick buildings were built in the center of the city.

Becoming a part of Russia, strengthening the process of the economic development of the krai, the development of its commodity-money relations and its involvement in the nationwide Russian market favoured the growth of productive forces.

Small workshops of artisans and small semi-handicraft factories appeared in Verkhneudinsk. In the late XlXth century Verkhneudinsk is already the county town of the European Russia. There are direct and regular streets; a square with stone houses and trade rows was constructed. Advantageous location: near the navigable Selenga river, on the main way from Irkutsk to the Amur River, and proximity to the grain-producing areas and affluent localities make Verkhneudinsk a main shopping center in the western part of Transbaikalia. More rapid development of industry in the city is connected with the construction of the Great Trans-Siberian Railway. Construction of the Verkhneudinsky road was completed in 1899. On the 15th of August in 1899 city residents saw the first train. It was a great and joyful event for Verkhneudinsk.

By 1917 the urban population rose to 20 thousand people. On the 30th of May in 1923 the Bureau of the Central Executive Committee passed a resolution on the establishment of the Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic with its capital in Verkhneudinsk.

Since 1932 broad industrial development of the city has begun. Then on the outskirts of the city large industrial building had expanded. In a short time buildings of the largest in the East industrial enterprises were grown there.

In 1934 the Verkhneudinsk town was renamed in Ulan-Ude. In the Buryat language it means "Red Uda”, under the name of the Uda River.

And in 1958 the city became the capital of the Buryat Autonomous Republic.

In 1994 the coat of arms was changed because Ulan-Ude was no more a part of the Irkutsk oblast. It has no babr, the lower part was the same but in the upper part of the shield the sun and the moon, symbolized hearth and eternal life, were depicted on the gold field.

Geographical position

Ulan-Ude is located in the western Transbaikalia about 100 km to the east of the Lake Baikal within the Ivolgina-Udinsky intermountain basin, on the right bank of the Selenga River by the confluence of the Uda River. Two rivers flow within the city of Ulan-Ude - the Selenga and Uda.

Industry

The main industries In Ulan-Ude are engineering and metalworking, forestry, energy, mining and quarrying.

Transportation

Ulan-Ude is an important railway junction (the main course of the Trans-Siberian Railway, the line at Nyaushki (Ulan Bator)). The Federal Highway Baikal: M55 Irkutsk - Ulan-Ude - Chita. Roads to Kyakhta, Kurumkan, Khorinsk, Zaigraevo. The International Airport "Baikal” is located in 15 miles from the center of Ulan-Ude. City transport includes trams, buses and minibuses. Transportation of passengers is being carried on the 71th bus and the 4th tram routes.

Attractions

Major attractions:

Ethnographic Museum of Wooden Architecture - one of the largest Russian open-air museums Museum of Nature of Buryatia

Museum of History of Buryatia (the Buryat State United Historical and Architectural Museum of Art) has a rich archaeological collection of the ages of bronze, iron, the Xiongnu and the Middle Ages

Odigitrievsky Cathedral – an Orthodox Church of the Buryat Diocese, the first stone building in the city, an architectural monument of the Siberian baroque

Sampilov Art Museum 

Buryat State Academic Opera and Ballet

 Famous people

 Girchenko, Vladimir Petrovich - a historian, archivist, local historian

Gor, Gennady Samoilovich – a Russian Soviet writer

Kurbatov, Apollon Apollonovich – a chemist, mechanical engineer

Lazarev, Vladimir Vasilyevich – a Russian philosopher, linguist, professor

Said abu Saad al-Buryati (Alexander Tikhomirov) – an Islamic preacher and one of the ideologists of the North-Caucasian armed underground.