Рус  |   Eng  |   中文
The Far Eastern Federal District
The Privolzhsky Federal District
The North-Western Federal District
The Siberian Federal District
The Ural Federal District
The Central Federal District
The Southern Federal District
 

Perm Region

Tulymsky stonePerm RegionChurch of Our Lady MotherChurch of the Transfiguration

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Perm Territory

Federal District: The Privolzhsky Federal District

Area: 160 236 km2
Population: 2 708 419 persons.

Emblem of of Perm region
Emblem of of Perm region

Flag of Perm region
Flag of Perm region



Description

Subject of the Russian Federation:

Perm Krai

Federal district: Volga Federal Okrug

Total area: 160, 236 km2

Population: 2, 708, 419

Description

The Perm edge — is a subject of the Russian Federation. Administrative center — is the city of Perm. Krai shares its borders with Republic of Komi, the Kirov region, Udmurtiya, Bashkortostan, Sverdlovsk area.

It was formed on December 1st, 2005 as a result of association of the Perm area and Komi-Permjatsky autonomous region according to the results of the referendum spent on December, 7th, 2003.

By an estimation of January, 1st, 2009 population of the Perm Krai was about 2 708 419 people. The Perm edge includes 51 municipal union of the first level — 42 municipal areas and 6 city districts. Municipal areas are as a part of the Krai.

History

Almost 300 thousand years ago the first human foot stepped on Chusova shore and ancient Kama. Until the XVII century AD people in the Kama area has come a long way to go. About 6 thousand years BC on the banks of the Kama and the Volga rivers the basis for the future of the Finno-Ugric peoples of Eurasia was formed.

In the I century BC on the banks of the Kama and Volga rivers formed a single Finnish-speaking community called Ananyino. The tribes were the ancestors of modern Finnish-speaking peoples of the Volga and Ural regions. In the I millennium BC this unity was divided into a number of tribes that in the first half of the IInd millennium BC turned to the ancient peoples. Among them were ancestors of the Komi-Permyak: lomovatovsky tribes, nevolinsky and rodanovsky archaeological cultures.

From the north and the south-east of their territory, the lands of Cheptsa and Vym cultures adjoined the tribes, the ancestors of modern Komi and Udmurtia. Through the Sarmatian, and then through the Turkic prairies came there caravans carrying silver vessels, beads, wonderful swords and the other things. Back tradespeople carry fur of sable, beaver, and squirrel, and even salt and grain.

At the 10th century in the land of Permthe Bulgar merchants trade, but in the 12 century the lands of Visu people became a part of Bulgar feudal state. Bulgars settle with people of Perm, that’s why modern Komi-Permyak people have the Bulgar blood either.

For the first time the word "perm" was found in the outstanding monument of ancient Russia in the beginning of XIIc. - "Tale of Bygone Years". Among the nations that "who gives a tribute to Russ," Perm was called. If we consider that the first Russian campaign in the Urals were on the north basin of the Kama, then most likely the so-called population of Vychegodsk basinthe ancestors of the Komi-Zyryans. Subsequently, this territory in the Russian chronicles was called the Old Perm, Perm of Vychegoda.

Toward the end of the XVI century and in the XVII century the Russian immigrants joined the major resettlement flows from the north, they try to get to the future city of Perm trough the Volga and Kama rivers. From the central and southern regions of Russia.

Stroganov began to force out the Tatar and the Bashkir people from their lands. Tatar Murza Kultay Shigirev with his Yurt moved into the upper reaches of the Lower Mulyanki, and founded the settelement also known as Kultaevo Pole.

At the beginning of the XVII century his son Shigiley Kultaev received Granted Royal Charter to own his ancestral lands. Gradually, however, the Tatar population has been displaced to the Upper Mulyanka, where the villages of Koyanovo and Tasimki (Kasimovo) were founded. Tatar-Bashkir settlements were surrounded by Russians. The Part of the Tatar and Bashkir moved into Russian villages that were named after the rivers (Upper Mullas and Lower Mullas).

The administrative center of this part of the Stroganov ancestral lands was Nikolskoe village (from 1647 clled Opper Mullas). In the XVII century an important foothold in the military, economic and cultural development of the Middle Urals in the north was the city of Sol Kamenskaya (also known as Solikamsk), while in the south-east - a newly built city of Kungur. Trunk road through the Russian Urals flew through opened in 1597 Babinov road from Solikamsk to Verkhoturye.

To provide more convenient local leadership, in 1708 Peter I introduced the provincial government. All the entire Middle Urals up to 1727 used to be a part of Siberian province with its center in the city of Tobolsk. Later the lands of Perm became a part of Kazan Province, and afterwardsin 1781 by decree of Catherine II the Perm governorship was formed. By the end of the XVII century on the lands of Perm, as well as on the other lands of the Urals, the emergence and rapid development of heavy industry, without which is impossible to imagine a new Russia, became possible. In many places along the Kama, in XVI—XVII centuries, farmers railway works existed. Farmers were the main part of the workmen.

Geographical Position, Natural Resources, Climate

Perm Region has an area of 160, 236, 5 m2. It is situated on the eastern outskirts of the Russian Plain and the western slope of the Middle and Northern Urals, at the junction of two continents - Europe and Asia. It covers about 1/5 of the Ural economic district. The territory of the region is almost entirely located in the basin of the Kama River - the largest tributary of the Volga River. Kama through a system of channels provides access by water to five seas (the Caspian Sea, the Azov sea, the Black sea, the Baltic and the White seas). Maximum length of the edge from north to south is 645 km, from west to east is 417,5 km.

The most northern point of Prikamye is the mountain of Pura-Munit (1094m), which is situated on the Ural watershed range in the upper courses of the rivers Hozja, Vishera and Purma (coordinates are 61°39' northern latitude). An extreme southern point is near to the former village Yelnick, which is about 56°06 'nothern latitude. An extreme point in the west is about one kilometer north-east from the height of 236, that is situated on a watershed of the rivers Lepju, Peles, Kazhim (51°47 ' eastern longitude). The extreme point in the east is the highest point of a Hoza-Tump mountain range – the mountain of Raht-Sori-Sjahl (1 007m), its coordinates - 59°29 'eastern longtitude. The borders are very twisting, their extent is more than 2,2 thousand km.

Winter is long and snowy. Average temperature of January in the north-east of the region is approximately 18,5 °C below zero, in the south-west of the region is about 15 °C below zero. The minimum temperature in the north is approximately 53 °C below zero.

Industry

At the Russian and the global markets, leading industries of the Perm Krai are: engineering, chemicals and petrochemicals, metallurgy, fuel industry, wood industry, wood using industry, pulp and papermaking industry. Perm region in Russia is a leader in the development and production of gas pumping units, fiber-optic and navigation systems, propellant fuel, magnesium and titanium alloys.

Agriculture

Agricultural land in farms of all categories is 1,742 ha or 11% of all land territory, arable land — 1 269 ha or 8%. The production of meat and dairy cattle is in progress, crops, potatoes and vegetables have been grown. Poultry farming, beekeepings are in progress, and around industrial centers there are suburban households.

Sights

  • Kungurskaya Ice Cave
  • Usvinskie columns and Shumihinskie rocks
  • The Town made of stone
  • "Visherskii" reserve
  • Cave painting of ancient hunters
  • Permyak - the Salty Ears

Famous natives

  • Victor M. Oreshnikov (1904—1987) - famous Soviet artist and teacher, a master of portraiture and historical genre. People's Artist of USSR (1969). Winner of two Stalin Prizes of third degree (1948, 1950)
  • Nikolai Sergeevich Morilov (11 August 1986) — Russian skier, Olympic bronze medalist in 2010 in the team sprint freestyle (together with Alexey Petukhov), two-time medalist at World Championships
  •  DJ Smash (real name — Andrew L. Shearman) — Russian DJ, writes electronic music
  • Tatiana Totmianina (born November 2, 1981) — Russian figure skater. Specialization — pair skating. In the Russian national figure skating since 1999. Honored Master of Sports of Russia
  • Peter Berngardovich Struve (January 26 (7 February) 1870, Feb. 26, 1944) — Russian philosopher, economist, social and political activist and publicist