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Perm

The bridge acros the river MulyankaThe monument to V.I. Lenin in front of Opera and balletThe monument to heroes of the front and rearThe church of Maria Magdalena

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Perm Territory

Federal District: The Privolzhsky Federal District

Area: 799,93 km2
Population: 986 510 persons.


Description

Subject of the Russian Federation:

Perm Krai

Federal district: Volga Federal Okrug

Total area: 799, 93 km2

Population: 986, 510

Description

Perm is a city in the east of European Russia, in the foothills of the Urals that is called the "city of rivers" as there are enomous number of large and small rivers flows in Perm.ghjnt. Also Perm is the administrative center of the Perm Kraiand also is a port on the Kama River.

 Modern Perm is the third in size city in Russia after St. Petersburg and Moscow (799.68 sq. km.). The city is divided into intercity territories: seven areas and the New Ljady settlement.

The population is 986 510 people (2010).

History

At the place where modern Perm is situated in the XVII century it used to be the village of Bryuhanovka. Foundation of the city is also associated with the name of Tatishchev, who lead the construction of Egoshihinsk copper-melting plant. Near the plant grew the city, which was called "Perm" (from the Finno-Ugric "per ma" — "faraway land"). By Catherine II decree on November 20, 1780 Perm became a city of province. At the beginning of the XIX century Perm had become an important trading center. The most faster-moving Perm item was salt which was mined in the provinces of Perm called Usolie and Solikamsk. Perm for a long time had been managing the Ural Mountain plants.

In 1846 regular navigation across Kama became possible. In 1858 in a mouth of the small river Daniliha the mechanical factory, where river tows were under construction, was built. In

1863 in Perm Motovilikhinsky gun factory was opened Later it became one of the largest metal-working enterprises of the Urals.

In 1878 the Ural railway which has passed through Perm has been constructed.

In 1875 in the city of Perm the king-hammer weighing 50 tons was made. In pre-revolutionary Perm grammar schools, real and mining schools, a theological seminary, theater, a scientifically-industrial museum have been opened. In days of the Great Patriotic War to Perm many large industrial enterprises have been evacuated.

Geographical position

Perm is located on the banks of the Kama River, the largest left tributary of the Volga Riverthat is to the south of the river mouth Chusovaya. The city stretches for 70 km along the river and 40 miles inland. Thanks the Kama river, Perm is connected waterways with five European seas: the Caspian, the White sea, the Black sea, the Azov sea and the Baltic sea.

 In addition to flowing through the territory of Perm such major rivers as the Kama river, the Chusovaya river and the Sylva, the city has a large number of small rivers within the basin of the Kama. Perm is the champion by quantity of the small rivers among the cities of Russia. Let’s name the biggest of them; they are Mulyanka, Yegoshiha, Motoviliha in the left part of the city and Gaiva in the right part.

Total area of city woods in Perm (as of 2006) is about 33 890 hectares.

Industry

Leading industry branches of the city of Perm are: electric power industry, oil and gas refining, mechanical engineering, petrochemistry, a woodworking, polygraphy and the food-processing industry.

By industrial output Perm wins first place among the other cities of the Urals, being in advance of such big cities as Ekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk and Ufa.

In mechanical engineering the large proportion is made by the enterprises of a military-industrial complex. The basic production of Perm is artillery systems, aviation engines and gas-pumping installations, the oil-field and mountain-mine equipment, electric and fuel-powered saws, communication equipment, road-building equipment, river crafts, electrotools and etc.

The enterprises of the chemical and petrochemical industries make varnishes and paints, explosives, mineral fertilizers, the synthetic washing-up liquids, the activated coal and other production.

In the city several dozens of enterprises of the food-processing industry are settled down.

 Agriculture

Agricultural land in farms of all categories is 11% of all land territory, arable land 8%. Was the development of forage production for meat and dairy cattle, grow crops, potatoes and vegetables. Development of poultry farming, beekeeping, around industrial centers - suburban households.

Transport

Perm is one of the largest transport center in Russia. The city occupies a very favourable geographical position, as it is located in the center of the country at the crossing of a railway route from Europe to Asia (called Trans-Siberian highway) with the water way flowing into five seas.

Railway transportation

Perm is a large railway junction. Many passenger trains passes through Perm.They are the railways linking the Central, North-West, Volga-Vyatka regions of the country with the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. Also these railways link Moscow with the capitals of Mongolia and China, and Saint-Petersburg with the capital of Kazakhstan.

Air transport

Perm "Air gates" is an airport of "Big Savino" which has international status and which is capable to accept all types of modern aircrafts. The reconstructed and extended runway to 3,200 meters is considered today one of the best in Russia. Perm is connected by direct flights with Moscow, St. Petersburg, Krasnodar, Sochi, Yekaterinburg, Ufa, Kogalym, Naryan-Mar and other Russian cities. Regular international flights are carried out in such cities as Frankfurt on the Main, Bankgok, Hurghada, Sharm el-Sheikh, Khujand, Yerevan, Dushanbe, Antalya airport, Goa (India), etc.

Automobile transport

Through Perm passes federal highway R242 (from Kazan to Perm andEkaterinburg). The highway to border with the Kirov region which will become a part of the federal highway St. Petersburg – Ekaterinburg is under construction.

The highway to Syktyvkar through Komi-Permjatsky okrug is also under construction.

Buses and taxis connect Perm with many settlements of the Perm Agglomeration, with all the centers of administrative territories of the Krai, and also with the city of Izhevsk, Votkinsk, Sarapulov, Naberezhnye Chelny, Nizhnekamsk, Ufa, Neftekamsk, Orenburg, Togliatti, Yekaterinburg, Krasnoufimsk, Chelyabinsk, Samara.

River Transport

Two most eastern river ports in Europe are situated in Perm: the port Perm and Levshino port. From Perm it is possible to carry out transportation of cargoes in ports of the Baltic, the White sea, the Black sea, the Azov and the Caspian seas, river ports of the Great European ring.

Urban Transport

Currently the city has 15 tram lines, 13 trolleybus and 121 bus routes, as well as 30 fixed-route taxis.

Sights

  • Five-domed Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul (1757-1764)
  • Bishop's house in the ensemble of the Spasopreobrazhensky Cathedral (1793-1798)
  • The House of Pryanishnikov (Governor House)
  • Usadba of Gavrilov
  • Perm Regional Museum
  • Perm art gallery

Famous People

  • Andrey Voronihin (1759—1814) - Russian architect and the painter, the representative of the classicism, one of founders of Russian empire style
  • Dmitry Mamin-Sibirjak (1852—1912) - Russian prose writer
  • Nikolay Slavjanov (1854—1897) - inventor of electric arc welding of metals
  • Feofan (also known as Sergey Petrovich Ilmensky, 1867—1918) - rector of the Perm theological seminary, the bishop of Solikamsk. Enrolled among the saints by the Russian Orthodox Church
  • Alexander Popov (1859—1905) - Russian physicist and the electrical engineer, the inventor of radio
  • Peter Struve (1870—1944) - Russian philosopher, historian, economist, public person and politician
  • Sergey Dyagilev (1872—1929) - entrepreneur, the provider of the “Russian seasons” in Paris and the leader of the troupe named “Dyagilev's Russian ballet”
  • Arcady Shvetsov (1892—1953) - Russian aircraft designer
  • Victor Astafev (1924—2001) - Russian writer
  • Lev Davydychev (1927—1988) - Russian children's writer
  • Arias Pazovsky (1887—1953) - conductor, the national actor of the USSR (1940)