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Krasnoyarsk Territory

Church of the IntercessionKazan ChurchState Nature Reserve The house of Gryaznov, 2nd half of XVIII c.

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Krasnoyarsk Territory

Federal District: The Siberian Federal District

Area: 2 366 797 km2
Population: 2 889,8 persons.

Emblem of Krasnoyarsk Territory
Emblem of Krasnoyarsk Territory

Flag of Krasnoyarsk Territory
Flag of Krasnoyarsk Territory



Description

Krasnoyarsk Krai - the subject of the Russian Federation

Administrative Center - Krasnoyarsk.

Founded: December 7, 1934.

It borders with Yakutia and the Irkutsk Oblast in the east, Tuva and Khakassia in the south, the Kemerovo and Tomsk oblasts, the Khanty-Mansi and Yamal-Nenets autonomous districts in the west.

On the 1st of January, 2009 population was 2889.8 thousand people. Population density – 1,2 persons per sq km (2009), the share of urban population – 75,7% (2009).

Krasnoyarsk Krai includes 17 urban districts and 44 municipalities.

History

 History of the Yenisei region goes to antiquity. The first people settled here about 200 thousand years ago. Over the past centuries waves of several great migrations of the mankind washed over the territory. Before the Russians joined this territory few Turks, Samoyed, Tungus and Yenisei tribes that possessed distinctive ancient culture and a particular way of life lived there. In the XIII century the southern part of the region was conquered by the Mongols. In the XV century this territory was part of the Siberian Khanate, after the defeat of which in the XVI century the whole territory of the region gradually became a part of Russia. The first fragmentary information about the appearance of the Russians on the Yenisei belongs to those distant days when brave Pomorie - the descendants of Novgorod ushkuyniki – reached there through the very cold sea along the northern coast of the continent.

However, widespread population of the Yenisey region occurred during the accession of the Eastern Siberia to the Russian government at the beginning of the XVI century - the first third part of the XVII century.

The main purpose of the pioneers’ movement in Siberia was "soft stuff" (fur) - the most important foreign exchange income item of the Moscow State in XVI-XVII centuries.

Krasnoyarsk was founded in 1628 by the governor A. Dubensky as the Krasny Yar fort for protection against attacks of the Tatars and the collection of tribute.

In the XVII century the second largest in Siberia, after Verkhotursk-Tobolsky, Yenisei agricultural area was formed in the region, which supplied bread to all eastern suburban areas of Russia.

Growth of the Russian population in the south of the province was accelerated by the creation of copper mining industry (the Lukazsky and Irbinsky plants) in 1730s.

In the middle of the XVIII century a new phase of settlement and development of the Yenisey region opened with conducting of the Moscow (Siberian) tract. Delivery of goods from Russia to the east and in the opposite direction became many times faster than the water-way delivery, trade intensified. Economic life is gradually moving from the north into a zone of the Moscow, Achinsky, Yenisei and Taseevsky tracts.

By the middle of the XIX century the Yenisei Province became the largest gold-producing region of Russia. In 1847 1,212 poods of gold were panned out of all 1270 poods produced in Russia.

A historical painter, academician of the Imperial Art Academy V.I. Surikov (1848-1916) was born in Krasnoyarsk in a hereditary Cossack family.

Factory-and-works industry was developing there with the construction of the Trans-Siberian railway on the territory of the province in 1895-1897 and introduction of capitalist relations. In the end of the XIX century there were small enterprises, railway workshops, and locomotive depot in Krasnoyarsk.

Since 1934 Krasnoyarsk is the center of the Krasnoyarsk Krai.

During the Great Patriotic War dozens of factories were evacuated from the frontline areas of the country to Krasnoyarsk. Industrial production of the krai increased in several times after the war.

 Geographical location, natural resources, climate

Krasnoyarsk Krai stretches from the shores of the Arctic Ocean to the mountains of southern Siberia (height 2,930 m). Krasnoyarsk Krai occupies the center of the Asian part of Russia.

The Krasnoyarsk Krai stretches almost for 3,000 kilometers from the Arctic Ocean to the Sayan Mountains in the south. The length from the west to the east at its widest point is 1250 miles, and along the Trans-Siberian Railway Mine- 650 miles. The northernmost point of the region - Cape Chelyuskin - located at 77 degrees 41 minutes north latitude and is the northernmost point of Russia and the Asian continent.

The relief includes: the Taimyr Peninsula with the Byrranga Mountains that break in the North Siberian Lowland, the Western Siberian Plain and the Central Siberian Plateau. The largest elevations: the Eastern Sayans (height 2,930 m), Kuznetsk Alatau. The main rivers: the Yenisei and its tributaries, Khatanga, Pyasina and Taimyr in the north. In the region large lakes are Taimyr and Pyasino.

Climate - continental, especially severe in the north, the average temperature in January from -36 degrees in the north to -18 degrees in the south, the average temperature in July - from 13 degrees in the north to 20 degrees in the south, precipitation - from 200 - 300 mm in the north to 800-1 200 mm per year in the mountains of Siberia.

There is permafrost in the north. Wetland peat soils are widespread, to the south - frost-taiga, grey forest, chernozem and chestnut. Most of the territory is covered by taiga (mostly cedar-larch), in the north - the Arctic tundra, in the south in the intermountain basins - the steppe.

 The Krasnoyarsk Krai is one of the wealthiest in natural resources areas of Russia. Natural resources are the basis of the investment attractiveness of the region and the base of its subsequent development. More than 6,000 deposits of various kinds of minerals are open in the region.

25 deposits of oil and gas are explored in the Krasnoyarsk Krai. The big advantage of the region is that these natural resources tend to occur together and can be developed simultaneously.

 Industry

Due to significant reserves of metal ores, availability of energy resources, and inherited from the Soviet era heavy industry, the region is the absolute leader among the country's regions, according to the output of an industrial product. 

Main branches of industry: ferrous metallurgy, energy, mechanical engineering and metalworking, woodworking, pulp and paper industry, chemical industry, oil-producing industry.

 Agriculture

There is a lion with a sickle and a spade on the emblem of the Krasnoyarsk Krai. The Sickle and a shovel reflect the main occupation of the inhabitants - agriculture and minerals mining, first of all - gold.

Climate of the Minusinsk Basin is considered to be the best in Siberia - best in Siberia, vegetables and fruits are grown there.

Transportation

 The Krasnoyarsk Krai is a large transportation, distribution and transit junction of the Siberian Federal District. The transport complex of the region is represented by all types of transport, including pipelines.

  • The Trans-Siberian Railway Main Line with branches "Achinsk-Lesosibirsk" and "Reshoty-Karabula" "Achinsk-Abakan" (formerly called Achinsk-Minusinskaya Railway "AchMinDor"); the South Siberian Railway Main Line (the section "Abakan-Tayshet" - "The road of courage" ), the Norilsk railway and derelict land "Igarka-Dolgiy" of the transpolar highway; the North-Siberian Railway Main Line is being designed
  • Motorways M53 Baikal (Novosibirsk-Irkutsk ") and M54 Yenisei (Krasnoyarsk-Kyzyl-Mongolia)
  • The Northern sea route and navigation on the Yenisei River (Yenisei River steamship)
  • River ports: the Krasnoyarsk river port, the Lesosibirsky port, the Yenisei port, sea port in Igarka.
  •  Transportation is well developed: 26 airports, including the largest in Krasnoyarsk city international airport Emelyanovo
  • The region is crossed by two lines of an oil pipeline “Irkutsk - Anzhero-Sudzhensk "
  • Main transmission lines: "Bratskaya HPP-Krasnoyarsk HPP-Novosibirsk”, “Krasnoyarsk HPP-Sayan-Shushenskaya HPP”

 The “Ob-Yenisei channel” waterway is not valid since 1942.

Attractions

  • Reserve "Pillars"
  • Dubrovinsky Street in Krasnoyarsk, the Yenisei quay
  • Krasnoyarsk HPP

 Famous people

·         Seraphima Amosova (Taranenko) (August 20, 1914-December 17, 1992) – an aviator, a participant of the Great Patriotic War, the deputy commander of the 46th Taman Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment, the Guards Major.

·         Boris Bogatkov (2 October, 1922 - 11 August, 1943) – a Russian Soviet poet, the hero of the Great Patriotic War.

·          Vyacheslav Butusov (15 October, 1961) – a rock musician, a leader of the group "Nautilus Pompilius" and "Yu-Piter".

·         Michael Velichko (1925 - 2007) – a Russian traveler, a local historian and a journalist.

·         Vasiliy Korzun (2 March, 1924 - 25 August, 1989) – a Soviet film and theater actor, a director, an Honoured Artist of Russia, a veteran of the World War II.