The Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia
The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Southern Federal District
Area: 14 300 km2
Population: 434 500 persons.
Emblem of the Republic Karachay-Cherkessia
Flag of the Republic Karachay-Cherkessia
The Republic of Karachaevo-Cherkessiya is a part of the Russian Federation, North Caucasus federal district.
On the west it borders the Krasnodar Region, Stavropolskiy Kray on the south, along the Main Caucasus Range it borders Georgia and the Republic of Abkhazia and Kabardino-Balkaria on the east. The length from north to south is 140 km and 170 km from west to east. The date of the establishment of Karachaevo-Cherkessia (KCHAO) is 1922.
It was transformed into a republic in 1991. The Republic is situated on 14,300 m2.
The administrative center is the city of Cherkessk.
The republic consists of two urban districts and 10 municipalities with 149 settlements, and four cities (Cherkessk, Karachaevsk, Ust-Dzheguta and Teberda).
The History of Karachayevo-Cherkesskaya Republic from its establishment to the present day.
The first settlements on the territory of Karachaevo-Cherkessia, are dated by the "Mousterian" era (Middle Paleolithic). Most of the ancient stone tools, like “rubiltse” in the form of irregular triangle, oval scrapers, silicon shells etc. were found in the region near Kardonikskaya village, Zelenchukskiy region in the river Kardonik. Also some Mousterian tools were found near the villages Zelenchukskaya, Jawor and Dzheganase. The founded stone tools were various and differential. Spearheads were used for hunting; scrapers with blunt back were used for processing leather, wood and bone. Bones were used along with the stone to make harpoons, spears and other tools. Tools of the transition period (from Upper Paleolithic to Mesolithic) were found in “Javor” site, Marukha village, near river Ovechka close to the town of Cherkessk. Along with the tools, amulets jewelry and the first religious attributes were found there, as well as bone artifacts decorated with ornaments and statues and ancient applied arts. The artifacts of Lower Palaeolithic period were found in several areas of the North-West Caucasus. Early Paleolithic sites are near the famous village of Imereti, Karachaevo-Cherkesskaya Republic where the stone tools were found. During the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic Periods the ancestors of the present day peoples of Karachaevo-Cherkessiya lived there. The middle of the III millennium B.C. is the period of formation of “Maikop Kurgan Culture” in the North Caucasus, named after the location of the burial, discovered near the town of “Maikop”. There are mounds of “Maikop” culture in Karachaevo-Cherkessiya on the northern outskirts of Ust-Dzhegutinskaya village. Under the huge mounds made of earth and rubble were rectangular tombs made of cobblestone and oak covered with reed. Skeletons were lying in the crouched position, and were sprinkled with red paint. Pieces of copper, polished stone tools and shards of yellow and red pottery of “Maikop” type were also found in the mounds. This period is characterized by changes in economic activity of local tribes. Hunting and fishing still exists, however, raising cattle and farming becomes more important. The culture of the “Maikop” tribes is called the culture of settled farmers and pastoralists. The territory of present Karachaevo-Cherkessia in the “Middle Bronze Age” and the 1st stage of the “Late Bronze Age” (2000 - 1200 years. BC) was also occupied by the autochthonous tribes which formed the North Caucasian Culture. A significant role in it was played by “Maikop” culture. Common traits are expressed in their most stable complex - the funeral. Their significance can be seen in burial traditions. The history of the tribes of the North Caucasus was influence by “Pit Culture”. The most eloquent evidences of their civilization are the stone statues. At the core of their economy was the stock raising, as well as the development of metallurgy, metal and ceramic production (the upstream of the “Kuban” and “Big Zelenchuk” were the main metallurgical centers of the North Caucasus). “Yamnaya Culture” was the basis of “Srubnaya Culture”, named after the type of burial in wooden frame under the mound. The next significant discovery in the history of the North Caucasus was the period of the late Bronze - Early Iron Age in the Koban culture of XII-IV centuries B.C. The sites were discovered near the Ossetian village “Koban”. Hunters, ranchers, metallurgists and artists of "Koban Culture" were at high level of development for that time. Their art was famous through the centuries. The magnificent monuments of the “Koban Culture” were displayed in the largest museums in Russia and Europe. “Koban Culture” is also famous for its “Nart Saga”. In the VII-IV centuries B.C. Scythians appear in Antes. The Scythian art, particularly gold production and gold tailoring is significant in the world’s culture. This period is called "Pozdnekobanskiy". During this period burial mounds in stone coffins or pits overlaid with stones were found in the villages of Dombay and Marukha, Karachaevo-Cherkesskaya Republic, and in Tamgatsik, the village of Jaco, Kyzyl-Kala. In one of the graves in the Kyzyl-Kala, Karachaevo-Cherkesskaya Republic, bronze beads and beautiful bronze heads of sheep, bears and wild boars were found. Starting from the III century B.C. steppes of the North Caucasus were already captured by Sarmatians, who dominated the Scythian tribes, and devastated a significant part of Scythia. It should be noted that “Alan” tribes settled on the foothills and passed to a settled agricultural way of life. Thus, in the Sarmatian era from the III B.C. till IV A.D. the descendants of the ancient “Kobanskaya” Culture, the earliest ancestors of Karachai influenced by the Sarmatian culture lived. In the IV B.C. the territory of Karachaevo-Cherkessiya was invaded by Huns. Caucasian tribes resisted the Huns, but could not prevail and were defeated. The majority of the local tribes relocated to other areas. The upper reaches of the “Kuban” and “Zelenchuk” - the territory of the present Karachaevo-Cherkessiya were part of the medieval “Alanya”. Written sources and archaeological remains state that the population of Alanya has been multi-tribal. It seems to be true regarding the current situation in Karachaevo-Cherkessia. In the second half of VI the North Caucasus was under control of the empire of Turks – “The Great Turkish Khanate”. From VII to X century Alania was a part of the Khazar Empire. The Khazars were interested in the North Caucasus because of its transit position on the “Great Silk Road” (from China to Byzantium). This is indicated by the silk, wood, fabric, leather and other materials founded in rock tombs. The Khazars were also interested in rich natural resources: gold, tungsten, iron, lead. Byzantine influence was spread among the Alans in the end of the IX century. Gradually the military way of life of Alans and the Khazars in the fortresses and fortifications was faded by the efforts of the Byzantine missionaries. A widespread building of churches started in Alanya. The populous settlements in the Teberda valley were chosen for the construction of Christian churches. “Sentinskiy”, “Shoaninskiy” and “Arkhyz” temples are protected as a unique historical and architectural monuments. Byzantine frescoes and the remains of Greek inscriptions are still preserved. In the VII-X centuries the population of the North Caucasus has risen and its economic development came to a new higher level, especially stock raising, ore extraction and specialized farming. A variety of metal items and tools as well as jewelry were produced at that time and founded at the sites near villages: Nizhniy-Arkhyz, Humarinskoe, Rimskoe. Certain types of craftsmen became significant: blacksmiths, gunsmiths, jewelers, masters of mining, iron and metal workers, stone masons, millers and potters, who marked their products. The development of craft led to the development of exchange. People engaged in trade were called “kupci” (merchants). The largest settlements became centers of trade and handicrafts of the feudal type. The most significant settlements of this type were in the upper reaches of the Kuban - Adiyuhskoe, Gilyachskoe, Humarinskoe, Nizhniy-Arkhyz etc. In the XIII century, Alania was conquered by the Mongols, lost its independence and became a part of the “Golden Horde”. After a campaign of Timur in 1395, Alan has disappeared from the political map of the Northern Caucasus. Thus ended the glorious era of the Alans - ancestors of the present Karachai and Balkarians. The Mongol invasion and Timur's campaigns damaged the economy and influenced the culture in the North Caucasus by changing ethnical population. These events were a watershed in the formation of the peoples of Karachaevo-Cherkessiya. One of the main nations who lived on the territory of Karachaevo-Cherkessia, were Circassians (Adyghe). Their ancestors lived in the North-West Caucasus and Black Sea Coast. As a result of frequent migrations, three major were formed: Adyghe, Kabardian and Cherkess. The Middle Ages are considered to be the formation of “Nogai” nation. By the time “Mongol Golden Horde” state began to decline, “Nogai Horde” separated from it. Another ethnic group of modern Karachai-Cherkessia - Abaza formed at the same period. The roots of this nation are in the medieval history of Abkhazia. According to the researches Abkhaz and Abaza formed a single ethnic community of modern Karachai-Cherkessia. They lived on the eastern coast of the Black Sea (north-western regions of Abkhazia and north-west to Tuapse). In the end of XV, beginning of XVI centuries Abaza began to migrate to the north-east. Some of them moved to the North Caucasus together with the Circassians. The other group migrated to the northern slopes of the Caucasus mountains through the Belorechensky, Marukhi and Abaza mountain passages. The resettlement in the North Caucasus and the constant movement continued until the XIX century and ultimately resulted in the settlement in the upper reaches of the Kuma river, not far away from Kuban and Zelenchuk. The next stage of the development of local areas was in a joint livelihoods of the peoples of Karachai-Cherkessia and the Russian population, which, in turn, helped to break the isolation of a natural economy of the local tribes and contributed to social development in general. In the second half of the nineteenth century Russian settlers start to populate the territory of Karachaevo-Cherkessiya and acquired the status of permanent residents. Coexistence of locals and the Russian population, which did not interfere in the internal affairs of old-timers have contributed to peace and the strengthening of southern borders of the Russian Empire. It also increased the production and expanded the markets for industrial goods. In this process, the main driving forces were the Cossacks and nonresident population. The administrative-territorial structure of Karachaevo-Cherkessiya in the second half of the nineteenth, early twentieth century went through numerous changes, the folding of the historical ties between the Russian population (mainly Cossacks) and Abaza, Karachai, Nogai and Circassians, proceeded accordingly. The territory of Karachaevo-Cherkessiya, was a part of the Kuban region – “Batalpashinsky” county (since 1886) in the second half of the nineteenth century. Highland population became a part of the population of counties, later - the department of the Kuban region. In the post-reform period mines and small food processing companies were established. The expansion of contacts between the Russian and local population positively affected the economy, life and culture of the people on the territory of present day Karachaevo-Cherkessia.
Karachaevo-Cherkessiya became the Autonomous Region on January 12, 1922. On November 30, 1990 the Karachaevo-Cherkesskiy Autonomous Region was proclaimed the Karachaevo-Cherkesskaya Soviet Socialist Republic (KCHSSR) within the RSFSR. On July 3, 1991, Karachaevo-Cherkessiya converted into republic in the Russian Federation.
Geographical Location, Natural Resources, Climate, the Position on the Map, Terrain, Mountains, Rivers, Climate
On north there is a Front Range of the Greater Caucasus, on south – “Vodorazdelniy” and “Bokovoy” ranges with the height of 4000 m. Marukhskiy and Kluhorskiy passes lead to the Black Sea coast. On the border with the Kabardino-Balkaria is a Mount Elbrus (5642 m), the highest peak in the Caucasus. It borders Krasnodar Region on the west, Stavropol Region on north, Kabardino-Balkaria on the east. On south along the Main Caucasus Range it borders Georgia and the Republic of Abkhazia. The length from north to south is 140 km from west to east 170 km. Coordinates: 43 ° 55 ' longitude, 41 ° 47 'east latitude.
The climate is continental, moderately warm. Winters are short, summers are long with warm adequate moisture. The average temperature in January is -5 ° C in the north and -10 ° C in the south (in the highlands), in July +21 ° C to +8 ° C. The highest temperature is +39 ° C, Lowest -29 ° C. Precipitation is 550 mm per year in the plains and 2500 mm in the mountains. Growing season is 140-150 days on the plain territories. Long duration of sunshine is indicative for the climate.
Flora and fauna
The variety of the relief of the republic – 400 to 5642 m above sea level caused the formation of different climate zones, and the diversity of flora and fauna. There are more than 2,000 species of wild plants. The nature of the republic is rich and unique. Magnificent mountain forests cover the slopes with mighty beeches in several girths, slim firs, ashes and maples. Relict thousand years yews with dark noble wood and spruce-fir forests with Pontic spruce, thickets of mountain maples, birches, mountain ashes as well as a lot of bushes: hazel, honeysuckle, azalea, barberry, rose, euonymus. Glades of juniper bushes and different kinds of berries: raspberries, currants, gooseberries, blueberries, cranberries and strawberries can be found here. On the subalpine meadows one can find grass up to two meters high, and low-grass alpine meadows. There are hundreds of species in this kingdom of different flowers. There is a typical alpine gentian flower in various colors from sky-blue and ultramarine to pale lilac, white and pink. Some species are known from ancient times which came from afar, while others originated and survived only here. There are a lot of original Caucasian flowers to see including Rhododendron - a symbol of the republic, shrubs with glossy leaves, strong and lush large inflorescence, with subtle hints of delicate wet petals. There are also perennial primulas, anemones, bright saffron and campanula, beautiful pale crimson, alpine asters and mountain daisies, crocus and tulip-like hazel. Many species of succulent kamnelomok adorn the heated rocks. Even the stones in the forest and the alpine meadows seem to bloom, adorned with a variety of mosses and lichens. Animals and birds are represented by wild boars, Caucasian deer, roe deer, lynxes, martens, squirrels, brown bears and wolves. In the upper forest lands: chamois, Caucasian black grouse, partridges, a kind of mountainous turkey called “ular” and the magnificent animal of the upper belt of mountains – Caucasian aurochs can be found here. Eagles are common here, and alpine noisy jackdaws. In rivers, a beautiful trout overcomes the rapids.
The republic has abundant water resources – a set of waterfalls in the mountains and around 130 mountain lakes. Lake “Hurla-Kel” is called the patriarch of lakes and according to researchers it is not less than 10-15 thousand years. Lake “Goluboe” (Ullu-Murudzhinskoe) is the largest lake. There is a Kuban reservoir and approximately 172 rivers, the largest are: Kuban, Uchkulan, Ullu Kam, Daut, Teberda, Aksaut, Marukha, Bolshaya and Malaya Zelenchuk, Kyafar, Urup, Bolshaya Laba. The Big Stavropol Canal, is a source of water for the Stavropol Territory. The subsoil is rich in natural resources: coal, granite, marble, various ore and clay, healing mineral waters, and many hot springs. There is a variety of vegetation, wildlife and water resources. The unique nature contributed to the creation “Teberdinsky State Biosphere Reserve” in 1936. It occupies more than one-third of the territory of the Republic and is located on the protected area. There are 100 glaciers that make up 10% of the territory of “Teberdinsky Reserve”. The largest of them are located on the Main Caucasian Range: Alibeksky, Amanauzsky, Ptyshsky, Bu Ulgensky, Chotchinsky and Hokelsky glaciers. Also on the territory of the republic there are: Eastern Division of the Caucasian State Nature Reserve, 8 reserves and 74 natural monuments. Industry and Agriculture. The Largest, Important and Unique Enterprises. Karachaevo-Cherkessiya has a developed and diversified industry. But first of all, it is an agriculture region. More than 60% of the population lives in the countryside and agricultural production is around 40% of the gross regional product. Animal husbandry is located in mountainous areas and specializes on horse breeding, meat and dairy farming, poultry, and sheep breeding. Climatic conditions are perfect for growing winter wheat, corn, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables, etc. There is an increasing trend in the gross collection of raw materials. Introduction of new advanced technologies as well as implementation of mineral fertilizers increased yield. The production of construction materials, light machinery, and food processing plays an important role in the country's economy. Confectionery, alcoholic drinks, sugar production, bottled mineral and sugary sodas are placed on an industrial scale. On the territory of the Republic there are working mines, quarries and mills for processing of various minerals, clay, gypsum for medical purposes, artificial leather and furniture production. Recently, the republic is actively cooperating with other countries on joint venture partnership.
The List of Large and Medium-sized Enterprises of Karachaevo-Cherkesskaya Republic.
1. RAO "ES of Russia" JSC "Zelenchukskiye HPP" Production of electricity non-ferrous metallurgy.
2. Enterprise resource complex of the Ural Mining and Smelting Company JSC "Mining Urupskiy Copper concentrate (copper content 15-16%), underground mining of copper sulphide ores Chemical and Petrochemical Industry.
3. JSC "Rezinotekhnika" Manufacture of rubber products: - V-belts - Rubber hose – Form. and unmolded rubber Engineering and metalworking.
4. "Plant NVA" PLC Production of low-voltage circuit breakers Production of vehicles.
5. Motor Company Ltd. "Derways" Manufacture of motor vehicles "Derways" Forestry and woodworking industry.
6. Karachaevo-Cherkesskaya Republican Unitary Enterprise "Karachaevo-Cherkessklesprom" lumber Paper and paper products, publishing and printing.
7. "Bumazhnayafabrika" PLC Paper napkins, toilet paper Textile and clothing manufacture.
8. PTSHF "Ina" LTD. Sewing jackets, uniforms, work wear and uniforms General Manager: Angela A. Rumina Construction Materials Industry.
9. JSC "Kavkazcement" Production of Portland cement 400 and 500 brand.
10. JSC "Ust-Dzhegutinsky gypsum plant named after R. Dzhanibekov" Production of gypsum plaster and non-metallic materials.
11. JSC "Nedra" Sludge for cement production.
12. JSC "Izvestnyaz" Dzhegonassky quarry Production of technological and construction lime.
13. JSC "Circassian expanded clay plant” Production of expanded clay Food Processing Industry.
14. "Mercury" PLC Production of mineral water, soft drinks, clean drinking water.
15. "Mercury-2" PLC Production of vodka and sausages.
16. JSC "Karachaevskiy Pivzavod" Beer, soft drinks, clean drinking water and vodka.
17. JSC "Visma" Manufacture of soft drinks and mineral water.
18. JSC "Visma-Arkhyz" Bottling of drinking water "Arkhyz".
19. JSC "Drozhzhevik" Pressed yeast.
20. JSC "CAMOS Corporation" Production of vodka and mineral water.
21. JSC "Akvalayn" Production of mineral and drinking water.
22. Confectionery “Dahanago” PLC Confectionery.
23. LLC "Cherkesskhleb" The manufacture of bakery products Agribusiness companies.
24. RAPP (Republican agro-business) "Caucasmyaso" PLC Meat processing, sausages, canned meat, fats, animal food and animal dry feed-stuff production.
25. Razgulay - UKRROS Group JSC "Karachai-Cherkess Sugar Plant" Production of sugar from sugar beets and raw sugar.
26. JSC "Company Yug-Milk" Processing of milk, production of dairy products, fatty cheeses, butter, bread and bakery products.
27. LTD "Saturn" Production of butter, cheese, cottage cheese, ayran, sour cream, cream, yogurt, sour milk, milk and yogurt.
28. LTD "Karachaevo-Cherkess mukomol" Production of flour.
29. LTD "Khladokombinat" Butter, mayonnaise, sour cream.
30. Agricultural co-operative (collective farm), "Kuban" Grain, sugar beets, milk, cattle breeding stock.
31. Karachaevo-Cherkesskiy Republican State Unitary Enterprise, breeding plant named after Osman Kasayev. Breeding sheep.
32. Agricultural cooperative (collective farm) named after Kirov. Grain, sugar beets, sunflower oil, meat, milk.
33. Agricultural production cooperative breeding plant "AgroLaba" Sheep breeding, milk.
34. Limited Liability Company "Schastlivoe" Grain, sugar beets, sunflowers.
35. Agricultural production cooperative "Toqtamish" Corn, soybeans.
The Settlement of VII-VIII Centuries and a Tower of Adiyuh
It is located in Habez area, 5 km south-west of Khabez village, on the high bank of “Maliy” Zelenchuk river, at the mouth of "Adiyuh" river. The settlement of VII-VIII centuries is similar to other early settlements established in remote locations with no additional fortification. The monument refers to the Western-Alan culture and now is the most researched than any other archaeological site of Karachaevo-Cherkessia.
Memorial monument of the defenders of Caucasian passes
The museum is dedicated to the defense of the Caucasian passes during the Great Patriotic War and is the only architectural ensemble in the North Caucasus.
Nizhniy Arkhyz Historical and Architectural Complex
The museum is located in the village Nizhniy Arkhyz, Zelenchuk municipal area. The historical and architectural complex was opened in 1977 on the basis of 3 cross-domed churches: the Northern, Middle, Southern, and the medieval fortress.
The Museum building on Lenina 14 street is a monument of architecture of the early XX century, constructed in 1914. It is one of the few remaining buildings of the early XX century with the original architecture.
The art gallery is a part of the block of historic buildings in Cherkessk. It is the only construction, that remained from the first urban development. The historic buildings on the street Krasnoarmeyskaya 56, Cherkessk is different from the all the rest, constructed in the XX century.
Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO)
Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) was established in 1966 and is currently Russia's largest center for astronomical observations of terrestrial objects in the Universe.
Sentinsky historical and architectural complex
Sentinsky historical and architectural complex is built on the basis of the ancient city, Xth century Sentinskiy temple and Teberdinsky women’s Monastery of Holy Transfiguration (XIX century). This museum complex is located in the Teberdinskaya Valley near the modern settlement of Nizhnaya Teberda. It is a museum under the open sky.
Teberda State Nature Reserve
Teberda State Nature Reserve was established on January 23, 1936 by the Resolution of the Central Executive Committee of the Sovnarkom of the RSFSR № 40.
Shoaninskiy historical and architectural complex
Shoaninsky temple was built in Xth century and is situated on the edge of a rocky ridge in the valley of Kuban River. The temple is clearly visible from the federal highway-Cherkessk Dombai.
The Settlement is located in the Humara village on the right bank of the Kuban River, 11 km north of Karachaevka village. The monument is located on the flat top of a mountain and has a distinctive and unusual silhouette. It is proved that the monument is a multi-layered – (VII-VI BC to VIII-XIV AD).
Born in the Republic:
• Yuri Popov (b. 1929) - opera singer, USSR People's Artist (1978).
• Vladimir Khubiev (b. 1932) - Chairman of the Karachaevo-Cherkessiya Executive Committee (1979-1990), head of the Karachaevo-Cherkessiya (1990-1999).
• Vladimir Semyonov (b. 1940) - Army General, Commander in Chief of Land Forces (1992-1997), President of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic (1999-2003).
• Vladimir Bryntsalov (b. 1946) - Russian businessman and politician.
• Mikhail Eskindarov (b. 1951) – Director of the University of Finance of the Government of the Russian Federation, Doctor of Economics (2000), Professor (1998).
• Dima Bilan (b. 1981) - a popular Russian singer, winner of the Eurovision Song Contest (2008).
Lived in the country:
• Roman Pavlyuchenko (b. 1981) - Russian football player.
The total length of roads is 4771.7 km, including: - Federal roads – 325.6 km, the number of bridges/1607-107, 8; - Regional and intermunicipal importance - 1612.9 km, including 1591 km of paved roads, the total number of bridges - 207/5393, 6 (151 made of steel and concrete). The density of highways with hard surface is 136.92 km/100 sq m. The basis of the road network consists of five country roads of regional importance: “Maikop-Karachaevsk”, “Pyatigorsk, Karachaevsk, Cherkessk-Khabez”, connected with "Arkhyz", “Cherkessk-Ispravnaya-Storozhevaya, Karachai-Uchkulan”. Three federal highways: A-155 "Cherkessk-Dombai” up to the border of the Republic of Georgia, with the roads to the border with the Republic of Georgia, and international sanatorium" Arkhyz ". There are roads to the “Astrophysical Observatory of Russian Academy of Sciences" and to the city of Cherkessk on the highway M-29, "Caucasus", A-156 "Lermontov-Cherkessk."
Means of transportation to the Karachaevo-Cherkessia:
The most popular flight route among the tourists is to the airport of “Mineralnie Vodi”. Airlines "Kavminvodyavia" and "Aeroflot" perform regular flights to Karachaevo-Cherkessiya. The flight time is around 2 hours. From the airport the city of Cherkessk can be reached by taxi or by bus.
The most simple and relatively cheap route to Karachaevo-Cherkessia from Moscow is by train from “Kurskiy, “Kazanskiy” and “Paveletskiy” stations to the cities of Nevinnomyssk or Mineralnie Vodi. The trip takes from 28 to 38 hours. There are bus and taxi services from the station to the city. Speed trains run from Rostov-na-Donu and Krasnodar to Nevinnomyssk station. The distance from Nevinnomyssk to Cherkessk is 60 km and from the town of Mineral Waters to Cherkessk 120 km.
There are many companies that provide direct bus services transportation to Karachevo-Cherkessiya. It takes around 24 - 28 hours To get there from Moscow through Tula, Lipetsk, Voronezh, Rostov, Krasnodar and Stavropol Regions.
Karachaevo-Cherkessia can be reached by car on M-4, "Don" highway through Rostov-on-Don. After the village of Pavlovsk turn on the highway M-29 "Caucasus" in the Krasnodar Region through Kropotkin city, bypassing Armavir, to the border of the Stavropol Kray, later through “Zavetnoe” village to Cherkessk.