The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Far Eastern Federal District
Area: 464 275 km2
Population: 343 539 persons.
Coat of arms of Kamchatka Krai
Flag of Kamchatka Territory
Kamchatka Krai is the subject of the Russian Federation
Administrative Center is Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.
Kamchatka Krai was formed on July 1, 2007 by uniting Kamchatka oblast and Koryaksky autonomous Okrug.
The Krai shares its borders with Magadan Oblast and Chukotka autonomous okrug. The total population of Kamchatka is 343 539 people. (2009). The average population density is 0.73 persons per. km². Most of the population, 196 thousand people (2009), live in the urban district of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.
Since July, 1st 2007 there are 68 municipal unions, including 3 city districts, 11 municipal areas, 5 city settlements, 49 rural settlements on the territory of the Kamchatka Krai.
The history of exploration of the Kamchatka Krai is meaningful for the scientific world. The first information received about the peninsula dates to the middle of the XVll century.First, Michael Stadukhin managed to reach the river Penzhina in 1650. From 1658 to 1661 Ivan Kamchaty, a service man, went with his men to the peninsula. From 1662 to 1663, Ivan Rubets, the Cossack headman, came there from Anadyr and probably wintered in the area.
Great assistance in promoting the explorers to the center of the Kamchatka Peninsula in the late XVll century rendered Vladimir Atlasov. His name is immortalized in the history of the most important geographical discoveries and is in line with the names of such pioneers as Vasiliy Poyarkov, Semen Dezhnev, Erofei Khabarov and Ivan Moskvitin.
Atlaseov decided to return to Anadyr stockaded town in 1699, leaving part of the Cossacks in Verkhnekamchatskiy stockaded town. In spring 1700 he came to Yakutsk. He caused quite a stir in Yakutsk, which was the administrative center of the entire North-Eastern Siberia, describing the new and uncharted lands. It was decided to send Atlasov immediately in Moscow.
A detachment of Cossacks, which was led by Rodion Presnetsov, in 1703 reached Avachinskaya Inlet. Nizhnekamchatsky andVerhnekamchatsky stockaded towns were built from 1704 to 1706 in places which were used by Cossack for wintering and Bolsheretsky stockaded town was built in 1711. Atlasov soon comes to the Kamchatka Peninsula once again, now possessing enormous powers given to him by the state.
Kamchatka was visited by Muravev, the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia, in 1849. A little later a decree about the formation of the Kamchatka region was issued . A number of industrial enterprises were set up by the workers of Petropavlovsk at a great cost in the years before World War II. And the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, the administrative center of Kamchatka territory, becomes a real industrial center. The citizens of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, could contribute to the heroic victory over the German invaders during World War II. Warriors of the Kamchatka participated in the liberation of the Kuril Islands, valiantly fighting for their homeland., The obelisk in the square of Liberty was built in honor of the exploits of heroes of the Great Patriotic War, the streets were named after heroes.
Krai is booming in recent years, and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky has turned into a modern industrial port city.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate
Kamchatka Territory covers an area of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the adjacent part of the mainland, the Karaginsky island and Commander Islands. It is washed by the Bering Sea of the Pacific in the east, and by Okhotsk Sea from the west.
Main rivers are Kamchatka, Penzhina, Talovka, Vyvenka, Pahacha, Apuka, Ukelyat. The lakes are Talovskoe and Palanskoe.
The chains are: the Middle (of about 900 km lengh), the East, the Vetvesky, The Penzhinsky and others. Mountain heights are: the Huvhoitun Mountain (2 613 m), the Ice Mountain (2 562 m), The Sarp Mountain (2 552 m), the Shishel Mountain (2 531m), the Tylele Volcano (2 234m).
Kamchatka is a zone of volcanic activity, there are about 300 large and medium-sized volcanoes, 29 of them are active. The largest volcano in Eurasia is Kluchevsky (4 750 m height). Volcanic activity is associated with the formation of many minerals, and also with the manifestation of gidrogeotermal activity: creation of fumaroles, geysers, hot springs, etc.
Climate is severe, it is subarctic in northern part of Krai, sea with monsoonal character at coasts and continental in internal areas. Winter is long, snowy, average temperatures of January-February are from −7 °C … −8 °C in the south and the southeast, −10 °C … −12 °C in the west to −19 °C … −24 °C in the center and in the north. Summer is short, cool and rainy, average temperatures of July and August are from +10 °C … +12 °C in the west, +12 °C … +14 °C in the southeast to +16 °C in the central part. An amount of precipitation from 300 to 700 mm a year.
Nature is diverse: there are the median ridges with glaciers, coastal hills, coniferous and deciduous forests, vast expanses of tundra and tundra in the north of the permafrost. Thousands of lakes and rivers rich in fish (salmon, trout, grayling, trout), dozens of different animal species (bear, elk, bighorn sheep, rabbit, fox, sable, etc.), hundreds of species of forest and water birds. A lot of berries and mushrooms. In the tundra grazing reindeer.
Main industries are fishing industry (fishing and seafood processing), natural gas, coal, nonferrous metals production, electric power, including the development of unconventional geothermal energy sources. The region has several major naval bases, in particular the submarine bases and air bases and radar stations, so part of the population is employed in the service of war economy.
The largest share in total industrial production are natural gas, coal, nonferrous metals production, electric power.
Kamchatka has long been famous for its furs. Furs of sable, fox, blue fox, fur seals which are harvested here are highly valued at international auctions. Reindeer breeding is well developed on the pastures in the north of Kamchatka.
• The Valley of Geysers
• Klyuchevskaya volcanic group
• Caldera Uzon • Vilyuchinsky Volcano
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