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Kaliningrad Region

CathedralKurshsskaya braidBrandenbursky gatesThe kalinigrad  region

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Kaliningrad Region

Federal District: The North-Western Federal District

Area: 15 125 km2
Population: 937 900 persons.

The emblem of kalingrag region
The emblem of kalingrag region

Flag of the kaliningrad Region
Flag of the kaliningrad Region



Description

Kaliningradskaya oblast is the subject of the Russian Federation.

 Its administrative center is the city of Kaliningrad.

Koenigsbergskaya oblast  was founded on April 7, 1946 within the RSFSR.

On July 4, 1946 Koenigsbergskaya oblast was renamed Kaliningradskaya.

It bBorders on the European Union - on Poland in the south, Lithuania in the north and east. Kaliningradskaya oblast in the west is washed by the Baltic Sea.

The population is  937.9 thousand people.

Population density is 62.1 persons per km ², the proportion of urban population is 76.4% (January 2010).

In the region there are 22 municipalities: the city of Kaliningrad, 6 urban districts, 15 municipal districts.

History

 Until the XIII century in what is now Kaliningrad lived tribes of Prussians, a people akin to the current Latvians and Lithuanians. The Prussians are far behind other European nations:  in the XIth century they still had no written language and cities, and they lived in a primitive society of pagan beliefs. After signing the agreement on the division of the Prussian lands between the Polish Prince Konrad Mazowiecki and Grand Master (GM) of the Teutonic Knights, Herman von Salz in 1226 began the colonization of Prussia, the German Teutonic Knights. Colonization was carried out under the guise of treatment of "Wild" people to Christianity. Pope equated campaign in Prussia the crusades to the Holy Land. During the conquest, which lasted for nearly fifty years, founded the Knights of locks, which are reference points. The first of these was the castle Balga, founded in 1239 on the banks of the Vistula (Kaliningrad), the Gulf and preserved until now. After the conquest the Prussian Culture was being eradicated by the knights as "evil", the opposing Christian faith. Several tribes went to the friendly Lithuania. But most of the Prussians gradually assimilated by mixing with a mass of German colonists. Only in rural areas it remained until the Prussian in the XVI-XVII centuries emerged the state of the Knights Cross. This state led the permanent war with Poland and Lithuania. Such a military surge has led to a crisis of Prussia, and it  even became  a vassal of Poland in the second half of XV century. In 1525, by order of Grand Master Albrecht the state was transformed into a secular Prussian duchy. The last Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights became the first Duke Albrecht, Duke of Prussia. The state religion of the new Prussian state became a Lutheran Protestant persuasion - so, Prussia became the first country in the world to recognize its Protestantism as a state religion. In 1657,  Prussia became part of the united states of Brandenburg-Prussia and freed from vassalage to Poland. During the Seven Years' War in 1758-1762 years  the eastern Prussia became a part of the Russian Empire. In German historiography this period was called the first Russian time. " East Prussia, or rather its northern part (about one-third of the total territory of East Prussia) became part of Russia after World War II, in accordance with the Potsdam agreements. Immediately after the victory was organized  the Konigsberg Special Military District, which  also was engaged in civil affairs. Soon it was transformed into the Konigsberg Region within the RSFSR. However, , this region has stayed not for a long time Koenigsberg, in 1946 it was renamed Kaliningrad. Officially, the Kaliningrad region in its present borders was created  on April 7, 1946.

Geographical location, natural resources, climate

 Kaliningrad region is the most western region of Russia. It is separated from the rest of the Russian territory with independent states, but is connected to the sea. The relief of the area  is mostly hilly plains. In the east region, Nesterovskoy  area over uneven terrain, there is Vishtynetskoye Upland with elevations up to 230 meters above sea level. Also, there are hills in the area Bagrationovsky (Varmiyskaya or Varmia Hills). Along the right bank of the river stretches  Instruchskaya ridge. Most Lowland areas are located in Slavsky area. This is so-called polders - land, constantly under threat of flooding and fenced dams. The main natural wealth of the region is amber. Kaliningrad region is called the Amber region, because its territory is located more than 90% of proven world reserves of this wonderful mineral. Together with amber pieces is found phosphorites. The region has several small oil fields, onshore and offshore, including the operating mode of declining production Krasnoborsky and the largest in the Baltic mine Kravtsovsky located on the Baltic Sea shelf. The Kaliningrad region has significant reserves of high quality salt and peat reserves of brown coal. Located at great depths mineral water springs with a high degree of mineralization are widely used in food industry and health care in the region. The resorts are using local mud. The climate of the Kaliningrad region due to its geographical position and is a transition from marine to moderately continental. The influence of the Baltic Sea leads to the fact that the average annual temperature increases from 6,5 ° C in the northeast region to 7,5 ° C in the south-west. Usually the coldest month is January, the warmest month is July. Maximum temperature in summer is 19 to 22 ° C, minimum temperature in winter is from -18 to -23 ° C. Frost-free period lasts 160-190 days. Annual rainfall varies across the region from 600 to 740 mm. In the autumn period the western gales are often over land.

Industry

In the Kaliningrad region are developed: transportation equipment; lifting machinery, shipbuilding and ship repair, assembly line production of automobiles, manufacturing and assembly techniques, building materials industry, food industry, wood processing and furniture industry.

 Agriculture

The main types of production are crop production (corn, canola, potatoes, vegetables, forage crops, etc.), dairy farming, production of beef, pork, poultry, horse breeding, farming, bee keeping, sheep breeding.

Transportation

Major roads:

• A-229: "Kaliningrad Znamensk-Chernyakhovsk-Gusev-Nesterov-Lithuanian border" (hereinafter - the direction of Vilnius and Minsk)

• A-216: "Kaliningrad Znamensk-Talpaki (branching to A-229) Bolshakovo-Soviet-Lithuanian border" (further in the direction - Siauliai and Riga)

• «Kaliningrad-Zelenogradsk-Rybachiy-Lithuanian border" (hereinafter - the direction of Klaipeda, runs along the spit at the entrance to which is charged pollution fees)

• «Kaliningrad-Ladushkin-Mamonovo-Polish border" (hereinafter - in the direction of Elblag and Gdansk)

 • «Bagrationovsk Kaliningrad-Polish border" (hereinafter - the direction of Warsaw) In Kaliningrad, Pioneer and the Baltic large ice-free seaport, the largest of them - in Kaliningrad. Baltiysk associated with St. Petersburg ferry from Gdansk and passenger line (operated by a Polish shipping company).

 In Kaliningrad, the Pioneer and the Baltic sea ice are major ports, the largest of them are in Kaliningrad. Baltiysk is connected with St. Petersburg and the ferry to Gdansk passenger line (operated by a Polish shipping company).In the city of Svetly is operating an oil terminal with capacity of 6 million tons of crude oil and petroleum products. At 24 km from Kaliningrad, close to the village Khrabrovo, is an airport of international class.

Attractions

• Queen Louise Bridge

• The Curonian Spit

• Fort № 5

 • Stock Exchange, the House of culture of seamen (Kaliningrad)

• Zakhaymskie gate (Kaliningrad)

• Jubilee Bridge (Kaliningrad)

 • Monument Immanuel Kant (Kaliningrad)

 • Princess-frog in Svetlogorsk

• Brandenburg Gate (Kaliningrad)

 Famous natives

• Anatoly Beloglazov (born September 16, 1956) is a Soviet freestyle wrestler, Olympic champion and triple world champion.

• Lyudmila Putina at birth Shkrebneva (born January 6, 1958) is a wife of the fifth Prime Minister of Russian Federation, the second president of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin.