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Kabardino-Balkar Republic

Kabardino-Balkar ReserveNational park Golen GateBlue Lakes

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Kabardino-Balkarian Republic

Federal District: The Southern Federal District

Area: 12 470 km2
Population: 894 324 persons.

Emblem of Kabardino-Balkaria
Emblem of Kabardino-Balkaria

Flag of Kabardino-Balkaria
Flag of Kabardino-Balkaria


Each person has a dream to see Elbrus and get in touch with this wonder of the world. This favoured region is truly a paradise for tourists. Judge for yourself.

A Paradise for Recreation. Due to the favorable climatic conditions, availability of various mineral waters and therapeutic muds the Nalchik Balneotherapeutic Health Resort has been recognized as the all-Russian and international health resort, alongside with that of Caucasian Mineral Waters. The famous carbonated mineral springs Gil-Su are located on the northern slope of Mount Elbrus in the upper reaches of the Malka river at an altitude of 2380 m above sea level. Gil-Su will always stay in your mind by its 40-meter waterfall Sultan, as well as by its fantastic outcrops in the Valley of Castles gorge, a meadow of stone mushrooms and hot narzans.

Mountain paradise. The roads to all gorges and to all the beauties of the republic begin on its capital Nalchik. Tourist routes lead from Nalchik to vicinity of the Mount Elbrus, the Chegem waterfalls, blue lakes and the famous Bezengi Wall.

Water Paradise. Kabardino-Balkaria rivers originate from the firmament . Waters of Chegem, Cherek, Baksan, Malka and their tributaries deeply cut mountain ridges, fall down as waterfalls from the rocks creating landscapes of a magic beauty on the way to the Terek River. There are scattered lakes spread over the territory of Kabardino-Balkaria. The most known and beautiful - are the famous Blue Lakes.

A paradise of the Earthly Harmony. Summer in the mountains of the Caucasus is represented by a rave of colors, a bunch of ​​flowers, the bright warm sun, babbling birds, murmuring rivers and roaring waterfalls – the nature lives its multifaceted life. And above it all - a white silence of the mountains, as if separated from this joy of life by the concept of "Eternity." In this mountain realm you may witness the silhouettes of chamois and turs and at looking above – watch black vultures, golden eagles and griffons fly. Elegant trout splashes in the crystal streams of the rivers, mighty bisons, honoured deers, bears and wild boars are hidden under the emerald canopy of mountain forests.

Have you closed your eyes imagining this beauty? Now open your eyes. It is impossible to imagine. This place should be visited and enjoy the paradise on the earth.

The Kabardino-Balkar Republic — the subject of the Russian Federation.

Capital — the city of Nalchik.

Kabardino-Balkaria and its capital Nalchik – are the national and international center of tourism, mountaineering and skiing.

The republic is located in the central part of the North Caucasus region on the northern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range and on the adjacent plains. It borders Stavropol Krai, the Karachaevo-Cherkess Republic, the Republic of North Ossetia - Alania, Georgia in the south.

The area is ​​12.5 thousand sq. kilometers.

Resident population is about 1 million people.


A major event in the history of the region is considered the signing of the military-political union between Russia and Kabarda in 1557.

In 1739 Kabarda was recognized as an independent state. In 1774, Kabarda was incorporated into Russia under Kuchuk-Kaynardzhiysky Agreement between Russia and Turkey.

As a result of the Caucasian War in the XIX century Kabarda lost its independence and 4/5 of its population which was forced to move to Turkey, Jordan and Syria in the process called Muhadzhirstva. Thus, there and in other countries appeared a Circassian diaspora exceeding a number of the Kabardins living in their homeland.

At the beginning of the XX century Kabarda and Balkaria remained agrarian outskirts of Russia.

On January 20, 1920, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee passed a decree on the formation of the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic which included Kabarda and Balkaria as the independent national administrative districts.

On September 1, 1921, Kabardin Autonomous Oblast was established within the RSFSR, and in January 1922, United Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Oblast was transformed into the Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936.

Residents of Kabardino-Balkaria made a worthy contribution to achieving the great victory. Over sixty thousand envoys of the republic fought bravely against the enemy on all fronts of the war, in the partisan parties not only within the country, but also far beyond. For courage and endurance shown by the workers of the capital during the war, the city of Nalchik was awarded the Order of Patriotic War of the I Class. And yet, the residents could not fully enjoy the victory due to the deportation of the Balkar people to Central Asia and Kazakhstan in 1944. The Balkars spent 13 years in exile and in 1957 returned to their homeland.

On March 28, 1957, the Supreme Soviet of the Kabardino-Balkar ASSR adopted the Law "On the transformation of the Kabardian ASSR into the Kabardino-Balkar ASSR".

On July 1, 1994, the Russian Federation and the Kabardino-Balkar Republic entered into the Agreement "On Delimitation of Competence and Mutual Delegation of Authority between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and State Bodies of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic".

Geographical location, natural resources, climate

The Republic is located in the southern European part of Russia — in the northern slopes of the central part of the Greater Caucasus (the highest pick of the Caucasus – Mount Elbrus, 5 642 m) and on the adjacent plains.

In the north, northeast and west the KBR borders Stavropol Krai and the Karachay-Cherkessia Republic, in the east and south-east it borders the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania. The state border with Georgia of 130.7 km long is situated in the south, along the Greater Caucasian Ridge.

The border line is twisty. Its bigger part lays along the low foothills and plains, and smaller one — on the mountains. Its south and south-east part goes along the crest of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range. The south-west border intersects Elbrus, in the west it intersects flat surface of Bechasyn Plateau; it passes through Kabardian Ridge to Kichmalka Valley and crosses Dzhinalsky Ridge. Than goes along the Psynshoko River to Tambukansky Lake, turns to the south-east to the Malka River which becomes a border river up to the Malka - Kura Canal. Then the border goes along the lowland steppes up to the north-east.

The eastern border on a small area is a water one, along the Terek, and then it crosses the Terek and Kabardian Ridges from north to south, turns south-west to Wooded Ridge, crosses Rocky Ridge along the river valleys Argudan and Haznidon and goes out to the Side and Greater Caucasian Mountain Range.

The origin of the different types of minerals on the territory of Kabardino-Balkaria is associated with a long and challenging history of geological development of the Caucasus, as well as with the diversity of its structures.

The Kabardino-Balkar Republic is rich in minerals, such as tungsten, molybdenum, oil, sources of medicinal thermal water and clean water, recoverable reserves of bentonite clays, feldspar, and tuff deposits, precious stones rocks (granite, diorite, diabase porphyries), and much more. Wooded and Arable Ridges consist of thick layers of tuff, pumice and ash. Therapeutic muds of Tambukan Lake have been used  for a century in balneology resorts of Caucasian Mineral Waters and the city of Nalchik.

Therapeutic mud represents a thick black plastic mass which includes gypsum, hydrohalite, sylvite, thenardier, magnesite. Complex technology for native mud treatment makes it possible to apply them for treatment and prevention of many diseases.

The largest rivers are the Terek, Malka, Baksan, Chegem, Cherek which originate from the highlands from the glaciers.

As well as the entire North Caucasus, the KBR is situated in the southern part of the moderate climatic zone. Under the combination of heat and moisture it is located in two climatic zones: in the Ciscaucasia and Mountainous Caucasus. Located in relatively low latitudes the territory of the republic gets a significant amount of solar radiation which determines the abundance of sunlight and heat. The average January temperature ranges from -4 ° C (on the plain) to -12 ° C (in the mountains), respectively, in July: +23 ° C to +4 ° C. Precipitation is 500-2 000 mm per year. 


The republic produces oilfield equipment, various types of electrical cables, diamond tools, products of artificial leather and film materials. These products are in great demand on both domestic and foreign markets.

The basis of the material resource base of the republic includes ores of nonferrous and rare metals, oil and natural gas, various kinds of mining and chemical raw materials, mineral and fresh water of different values, many species of valuable building materials.


Agriculture consists of grain growing and livestock breeding. It specializes in the production of cereals (wheat, maize, millet) and technical (sunflower, hemp) crops and dual purpose cattle breeding. In addition, agriculture includes cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and pedigree horse breeding (Kabardian breed), as well as apiculture and sericulture, grapes and fruits production.

Agro-industries have a leading role in the development of the republic economy.

Types of Tourism

  • Active
  • Recreational
  • Religious
  • Cultural-cognitive


  • Elbrus
  • Blue Lakes
  • Misses Kosh
  • Baran-Kosh. Kargashilsky Range
  • Aushiger Hot Spring
  • Bezengiyskaya Wall
  • Sultan Waterfall
  • Malye Chegemskie Waterfalls
  • Abai-Su Waterfall
  • Tambukanskoe Lake
  • Chegemskie Waterfalls

Famous natives

  • Kiazim Mechiev - Balkar poet, educator, theologian, philosopher, humanist, founder of the Balkar poetry and Balkar literary language
  • Temirkanov, Yuri Hatuevich (r.1938) — Outstanding conductor, People's Artist of USSR (1981)
  • Shogentsukov, Ali Ashadovich (r.1900) — Kabardian poet, Honored Artist of Kabardino-Balkar ASSR (1939)
  • Askerbi Shortanov - Kabardian classic literature, folklorist, playwright, critic, novelist
  • Kuliev, Kaisyn Shuvaevich (r.1917) — Balkar poet, Lenin Prize winner
  • Michael Zalikhanov - Russian scientist, academician, politician and public figure
  • Alim Keshokov - Kabardian writer

Emergency Telephones:

·        Single phone of firefighters and rescuers – 010

·        Police – 020

·        Ambulance – 030

·        Emergency gas service - 040

Sources of Tourism Information in the Region

Territorial Authorities of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia

Head Department of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia in the Kabardino-Balkar Republic:
tel. (8662) 74-38-18